logo
School of Law
   
   
  
 

Image of Mary Footer

Mary Footer

Professor of International Economic Law, FRSA, Faculty of Social Sciences

Contact

Biography

Professor Footer joined the School of Law at the University of Nottingham as Professor of International Economic Law on 1 January 2006. She is co-director with Professor Nigel White of the Nottingham International Law and Security Centre (NILSC) http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nilsc as well as co-director of the School's Postgraduate Research Programme. Since summer, 2009, she has also headed up the Business, Trade and Human Rights Unit in the Human Rights Law Centre http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/hrlc . She read European History and History of Art at the University of East Anglia (BA Hons) (1976), followed by a JD in Dutch civil law from the University of the Netherlands Antilles (1985), an LLM in Public International Law from UCL (1988) and a PhD cum laude (with distinction) from the Erasmus University Rotterdam (2005).

She taught previously at UCL (1988-1995), Erasmus University Rotterdam (1999-2001) and University of Amsterdam (2001-2005). From 1995-1999 she was Senior Program Legal Counsel at the International Development Law Organization (IDLO), Rome, responsible for training in international economic development and law reform in developing countries. Professor Footer has been a Visiting Scholar at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge (2014), a Fernand Braudel Senior Fellow at the EUI, Florence (2010), and she was the first Fellow in Public International Law at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London (1992-1994). Besides the University of Nottingham, she has guest lectured at the Universities of Kent and Warwick, UK; the European University Institute (EUI) Florence; University of Michigan Law School; the World Trade Institute, Berne; Utrecht University and European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA), Maastricht, The Netherlands; the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; and University of Peking (Beida) and Tsinghua Universities, Beijing, China. From 2001-2009, she was Dozent on the 'European and International Law' LLM at the Europa-Institut, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Expertise Summary

Professor Footer's research and teaching expertise lies in the fields of public international law and international economic law, including international investment law, international financial and monetary law, WTO law & development, food security, and business, human rights and CSR. Some of her papers can be accessed on Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN) at: http://ssrn.com/author=408258. Her current research focuses on the relationship between transnational and international economic law and governance.

She has been an expert consultant to the WTO, the EU, UNCTAD, DfID and the European Trade Union Technical Bureau (TUTB) for Health and Safety. She is a member of the EU's FP7 Marie Curie Actions ECOSOC panel and has conducted evaluations for the Flemish Organisation for Scientific Research (FWO), the Hong Kong Research Grants Council, the South African National Research Foundation, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and the Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada. She has been the recipient of a Nuffield Foundation Social Science Small Grant (2009-2010), and has pursued research on the socio-economic implications of the sovereign-rating methodology used by major credit-rating agencies, with seed-funding from the University's IGS Research Priority Group on Finance and Society (2012). Professor Footer is series editor (together with Professor Alan Sykes of NYU Law School) for the Edward Elgar Series on International Economic Law, a member of the Editorial Board of Journal of World Investment and Trade , the Manchester Journal of International Economic Law, the European Journal of Risk Regulation and State Practice and International Law Journal; she is a continuing member of the Advisory Board of Legal Issues in International Integration and the e-journal Law, Social Justice and Global Development. In 2010 she was elected to the Executive Board of the European Society of International Law (ESIL), and was a founding members of the ESIL Interest Group in International Economic Law (2007-2010). She is Director of Research for the British Branch of the International Law Association (ILA); Chair of the newly reconstituted ILA International Trade Law Committee since 2014; member of the ILA Study Group on Socially Responsible Investment since 2013 and of the ILA Study Group on Due diligence in International Law since 2014; and co-Rapporteur of the ILA Committee on International Law and Biotechnology (2004-2010). She has been a member of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) since its foundation. In 2012 Professor Footer was nominated a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA).

Teaching Summary

International economic law: international investment law, international financial and monetary law, WTO; law & development.

Research Summary

Aspects of transnational economic governance: the role of transnational law and legal process in international rule-making; complex transnational governance. Challenges to law-making in the domain of… read more

Selected Publications

  • FOOTER, M.E., 2013. International investment law and trade: the relationship that never went away. In: BAETENS, F., ed., Investment law within international law: integrationist perspectives Cambridge University Press. 259-297
  • FOOTER M.E., 2010. The (re)turn to 'soft law' in reconciling the antinomies in WTO law Melbourne Journal of International Law. 11(2), 241-276
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2009. Bits and pieces: social and environmental protection in the regulation of foreign investment Michigan State Journal of International Law. 18(1), 33-64
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2008. Some theoretical and legal perspectives on WTO compliance Netherlands Yearbook of International Law. 38, 61-112

Current PhD Students

  • Che, Luyao: State Capitalism and the International Economic Order (with Dr Uglješa Grušić)
  • Alhelali, Shaikhah: Legal Aspects of Technology Transfer and the Development Agenda in the TRIPS Agreement (co-supervised with Professor Paul Torremans)
  • Frank, Sotonye: Stabilisation Clauses and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries (co-supervised with Dr Edward Goodwin)
  • Garnjana-goonchorn, Intu-on: The legal technicality of the TBT Agreement and its effects on the environmental governance (co-supervised with Mr Michael Bowman)
  • Stathopoulou, Kalliopi: African Intrastate Peace Agreements and Self-determination (co-supervised with Professor Nigel White)
  • Lin, Wei-Chung: Defending the Environment: The Role of Civil Society in the Resolution of Conflicts between International Investment and the Environment (co-supervised with Dr Edward Goodwin)
  • Senior, Kerry: The Relationship between International and EU Law: Judicial Review, Art. 103 UN Charter and the Protection of Human Rights (co-supervised with Professor Nigel White)

Recent PhD Students

Enquiries are welcome from prospective PhD students in the following fields of my expertise:

  • public international law
  • international economic law, including international trade (WTO law), international investment law, international financial and monetary law
  • transnational economic governance
  • law & development
  • socio-economic aspects of biotechnology and food security
  • business, international human rights and corporate social responsibility (CSR)

Current Research

Aspects of transnational economic governance: the role of transnational law and legal process in international rule-making; complex transnational governance. Challenges to law-making in the domain of public international law: effect of state practice and role of treaty bodies and autonomous institutional arrangements under multilateral treaties.

Past Research

Institutional and normative aspects of the World Trade Organization. The role of soft law in international economic relations. the relationship between trade and investment. Various aspects of biotechnology, international law and food security.

Future Research

Return of the state and its significance for international law and policy making. The politics of international investment law.

  • MARY E FOOTER, 2014. Righting Socio-Economic Wrongs in Times of Financial and Economic Crisis. In: MARISE CREMONA, PETER HILPOLD, NIKOS LAVRANOS, STEFAN STAIGER SCHNEIDER and ANDREAS R ZIEGLER, eds., Reflections on the Constitutionalization of International Economic Law: Liber Amicorum for Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann Brill/Martinus Nijhoff Academic Publishers. 521-536
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2014. The Making of International Trade Law. In: CATHERINE BRÖLMANN and YANNICK RADI, eds., Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Law-Making Edward Elgar. 44 pp. (In Press.)
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2014. Treaty Interrelationships. In: MICHAEL BOWMAN and DINO KRITSIOTIS, eds., Conceptual and Contextual Perspectives on the Modern Law of Treaties Cambridge University Press. 35 pp. (In Press.)
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2014. Human Rights Due Diligence in the Responsible Supply of Minerals from Conflict-affected and High Risk Areas. In: JERNEJ LETNAR ČERNIČ, ed., Direct Human Rights Obligations of Corporations in International Law (In Press.)
  • MARIANO J AZNAR and MARY E FOOTER, eds., 2014. Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, vol. 4, 2012 Hart Publishing. (In Press.)
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2013. International investment law and trade: the relationship that never went away. In: BAETENS, F., ed., Investment law within international law: integrationist perspectives Cambridge University Press. 259-297
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2013. On the laws of attraction: examining the relationship between foreign investment and international trade. In: ROBERTO ECHANDI and PIERRE SAUVÉ, eds., Prospects in International Investment Law and Policy: World Trade Forum Cambridge University Press. 105-138
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2013. Review of Isabel Feichtner, The Law and Politics of WTO Waivers: Stability and Flexibility in Public International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) Legal Issues of Economic Integration. 40(4), 375-380
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2012. Shining brightly?: human rights and the responsible sourcing of diamond and gold jewellery from high risk and conflict-affected areas Human Rights and International Legal Discourse. 6(1), 159-191
  • MARY E FOOTER and ANDREW R FORBES, 2012. Changing Ideologies in Trade, Technology and Development: The Challenge of China for International Trade Law. In: SAM MULLER, STAVROS ZOURIDIS, MORLY FRISHMAN and LAURA KISTEMAKER, eds., The Law of the Future and the Future of Law: Volume II Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher. 309-322
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2011. Future Imperfect: Institutional Autonomy and the WTO. In: RICHARD COLLINS and NIGEL D WHITE, eds., International Organisations and the Idea of Autonomy: Institutional Independence in the International Legal Order Routledge: Taylor and Francis Ltd. 380-397
  • MARY FOOTER, 2011. Article XXIX, Article XXX, Article XXXI, Article XXXII, Article XXXIII, Article XXXIV, Article XXXV. In: RÜDIGER WOLFRUM, PETER-TOBIAS STOLL and HOLGER HESTERMEYER, eds., Max Planck Commentaries on World Trade Law - 5: Trade in Goods Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 736-766
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2011. The WTO as a 'living instrument': the contribution of consensus decision-making and informality to institutional norms and practices. In: THOMAS COTTIER and MANFRED ELSIG, eds., Governing the World Trade Organization: Past, present and beyond Doha Cambridge University Press. 217-240
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2010. Biotechnology and the international regulation of food and fuel security in developing countries. In: FAUNDEZ, J. and TAN, C., eds., International economic law, globalization and developing countries Edward Elgar Publishing. 331-353
  • FOOTER M.E., 2010. The (re)turn to 'soft law' in reconciling the antinomies in WTO law Melbourne Journal of International Law. 11(2), 241-276
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2010. International Organisations and Treaties: Ratification and (Non)-implementation of the Other Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. In: ALEXANDER ORAKHELASHVILI and SARAH WILLIAMS, eds., 40 Years of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties British Institute of International and Comparative Law. 183-203
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2009. Bits and pieces: social and environmental protection in the regulation of foreign investment Michigan State Journal of International Law. 18(1), 33-64
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2008. Some theoretical and legal perspectives on WTO compliance Netherlands Yearbook of International Law. 38, 61-112
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2007. A Tale of Two Commons: Plant Genetic Resources and Agricultural Reform. In: HAN SOMSEN, ed., The Regulatory Challenge of Biotechnology Edward Elgar Publishing. 174-200
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2006. An Institutional and Normative Analysis of the World Trade Organization Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2006. Agricultural biotechnology, food security and human rights. In: FRANCIONI, F. and SCOVAZZI, T., eds., Biotechnology and international law Oxford: Hart Publishing. 257-284
  • MARY E FOOTER, 2005. An institutional and normative analysis of the World Trade Organization: Een institutionele en normatieve analyse van de Wereldhandelsorganisatie Leiden: Nijhoff.
  • FOOTER, M.E. and AWUKU, E.O., 2005. The Seed Treaty and Equitable Benefit Sharing. In: Sustainable Justice: Integrating Economic, Social and Environmental Law Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 241-256
  • MARY E FOOTER and CAROL GEORGE, 2005. The General Agreement on Trade in Services. In: The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis Springer, Dordrecht. 799-953
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2004. Our agricultural heritage: sustainability, common heritage and intergenerational equity. In: SCHRIJVER, N. and WEISS, F., eds., International law and sustainable development: principles and practice Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 433-466
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2004. Agricultural Biotechnology, Food Security and Human Rights In: Biotechnology and International Law.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2004. Introduction to the Legal Aspects of Access to Genetic Resources and Farmers' Rights In: International Law and Biotechnology.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2004. Effective Global Governance: What can the World Trade Organization Learn from Other Internatinal Organizations and the European Union? In: Presentation of research on WTO Governance Issues in the Workshop Public Law I, as part of the Ius Commune Research School Annual Conference.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2004. The Future of WTO Governance in Light of its Institutional Failings In: Developments in International Law.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2003. Technical assistance and trade law reform post-Doha: brave new world. In: HATCHARD, J. and PERRY-KESSARIS, A., eds., Law and development: facing complexity in the 21st century: essays in honour of Peter Slinn London: Cavendish Publishing Ltd.. 108-131
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2003. Should Participation by Developing Country Members in the WTO Dispute Settlement System be Facilitated and, If So, How? In: The Reform of the Dispute Settlement System.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2003. Some Thoughts on Managing the Interface between Intellectual Property, Genetic Engineering and Sustainable Development. In: Intellectual Property, Trade Competition, and Sustainable Development University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. 505-510
  • FOOTER, M.E. and ZIA-ZARIFI, S., 2002. EC - Asbestos: The WTO on trial for its handling of occupational health and safety issues Melbourne Journal of International Law. 2(1), 120-142
  • FOOTER,M.E., 2002. The General Agreement on Trade in Services: Taking Stock and Moving Forward Legal Issues of Economic Integration. 29, 7-25
  • FOOTER,M.E., 2001. Application of the GATT, GATS and WTO Agreements to Agricultural Trade ERA-Forum. 4, 94-101
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2001. The liberalisation of international trade and the future of cultural industries. In: ERNST, K, HALBERTSMA, M, JANSSEN, S and AND IJDENS, T., eds., Trends and Strategies in the Arts and Cultural Industries Barjesteh van Waalwijk Van Doorn & Co’s Uitgeversmij, Rotterdam. 67-81
  • FOOTER, M. E., 2001. John H. Jackson The Jurisprudence of the GATT and the WTO: Insights on Treaty Law and Economic Relations Leiden Journal of International Law. VOL 14(PART 1), 247-257
  • FOOTER, M. E., 2001. Developing Country Practice in the Matter of WTO Dispute Settlement Journal of World Trade. VOL 35(PART 1), 55-98
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2001. The symbiosis between public international law and national law - studies in the enforcement of public international law in the national legal order
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2001. Developing Country Practice in the Matter of WTO Dispute Settlement. In: Trade and Agriculture: Negotiating a New Agreement? Cameron May, London, UK. 195-247
  • FAUNDEZ, JULIO, FOOTER, MARY, NORTON, JOSEPH JUDE and UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK, 2000. Governance, development and globalization : a tribute to Lawrence Tshuma / edited by Julio Faundez, Mary E. Footer, Joseph J. Norton London : Blackstone Press, 2000.
  • MARY E FOOTER and CHRISTOPH BEAT GRABER, 2000. Trade Liberalization and Cultural Policy Journal of International Economic Law. 3(1), 115-144
  • FOOTER, M.E., 2000. The WTO, Developing Countries and Technical Assistance for Trade Law Reform. In: Governance, Development and Globalization Blackstone Press Ltd, London, UK. 352-372
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1999. Intellectual Property and Agrobiodiversity: Towards Private Ownership of the Genetic Commons. In: Yearbook of International Environmental Law 10. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 48-81
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1998. The European Union and the WTO Global Trading System. In: The State of the European Union 317-336
  • FOOTER,M.E., NORTON,J.J. and ANDENAS,M., 1998. The Changing World of International Law in the Twenty-First Century Kluwer Law International, Deventer, NL.
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1998. What Future for EU-ACP Trade in the 21st Century. In: The Changing World of International Law in the Twenty-First Century Kluwer Law International, Deventer, NL. 273-316
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1997. Some Aspects of Third Party Intervention in GATT-WTO Dispute Settlement. In: The GATT-WTO Dispute Settlement Rules: Procedures and Practice 213-244
  • FOOTER,M.E., 1997. La Regulacion Internactional del Comercio de Servicios luego de la Ronda de Uruguay Revista de Derecho Internacional Economico.
  • FOOTER, M. E., 1997. The Role of Consensus in GATT/WTO Decision-making Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business. VOL 17(NUMBER 2/3), 653-680
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1996. Public Procurement and EC External Relations: A Legal Framework. In: The European Union and World Trade after the Uruguay Round John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. 293-309
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1996. Participation of the European Communities in the GATT/WTO Trading System. In: The Legal Regulation of the Community's External Relations after Completion of the Internal Market Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot. 71-105
  • FOOTER,M.E. and LORIS,B., 1996. The Polish Office of Public Procurement Public Procurement Law Review. 5, CS81-82
  • FOOTER,M.E., 1996. C-360/93 on the Community's External Powers in the Area of Public Procurement Public Procurement Law Review. 5, CS148-149
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1996. Trade and Investment Measures in the Energy Charter Treaty. In: The Energy Charter Treaty: An East-West Gateway for Investment and Trade Kluwer Law International, Deventer, NL. 441-454
  • FOOTER,M.E. and BELLO,J.H., 1995. Preface to GATT Symposium Issue International Lawyer. 29:2, 335-343
  • FOOTER, M. E., 1995. The International Regulation of Trade in Services Following Completion of the Uruguay Round International Lawyer. VOL 29(NUMBER 2), 453
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1995. TRIPs and the EC. In: The Intellectual Property Institute
  • FOOTER,M.E., 1995. Public Procurement and the Wider Europe: a Review of the Recent Europe Agreements Public Procurement Law Review. 4, CS115-117
  • FOOTER,M.E., 1995. 'Opinion 1/94 on Community and Member States' Competences under the WTO: Implications for Public Procurement Public Procurement Law Review. 4, CS14-21
  • FOOTER,M.E., 1995. Remedies under the new GATT Agreement on Government Procurement Public Procurement Law Review. 4, 80-93
  • MARY E FOOTER, 1994. GATT and Banking as a Trade in Services. In: J J NORTON, CHIA-JUI CHENG and I FLETCHER, eds., International Banking Operations and Practices: Current Developments 25-54
  • MARY E FOOTER, 1994. External Aspects of the Community's Public Procurement Policy in the Utilities Sector Public Procurement Law Review. 3, 187-194
  • FOOTER, M.E., 1994. The Multifibre Arrangement. In: B. COLAS, ed., Global Economic Cooperation: A Guide to Agreements and Organizations Management Books/Kluwer Law & Taxation Publishers/United Nations Univerity Press. 67-70
  • MARY E FOOTER, 1994. Global and Regional Approaches to the Regulation of Trade in Services International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 43(3), 661
  • MARY E FOOTER, 1993. GATT: Developments in Public Procurement Procedures and Practices Public Procurement Law Review. 2, CS193-204
  • MARY E FOOTER, 1993. GATT and the Multilateral Regulation of Banking Services The International Lawyer. 27(2), 343-367
  • MARY E WORMGOOR-FOOTER, 1984. Time-sharing en Cooperative Vereniging Tijdschrift voor Antilliaans Recht-Justicia. 5:4, 286-289

School of Law

Law and Social Sciences Building
University Park
Nottingham NG7 2RD

telephone: +44 (0) 115 951 5700
fax: +44 (0) 115 951 5696
email: law@nottingham.ac.uk