RLO: Referencing your work using Harvard

FAQ - Frequently asked questions - Referencing Tool

Q: When do I use pp. and when do I use p. when quoting page numbers?

Answer:  p. (for page) indicates that an article is contained within one single page, whilst pp. (for pages) indicates that the article covers multiple pages.

Q: How should I order my reference list at the end of my piece of work?

Answer: The list of sources has to be provided in alphabetical order by author's surname or by the name of the institutional body.  Word such as “The” are excluded from this process -- e.g. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) would appear within list after any authors beginning with M and before any beginning with O.

Q: How should I format an in-text citation that includes more than one source to back up an argument?

Answer:  You should order the sources from the oldest to the most recently published and separate the sources with a semicolon– e.g. (Bane et al., 2006; White et al., 2007; Astin et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2009).

Q: What is a bibliography and how does it differ from a reference list?

Answer: A reference list is a list of resources that you have directly cited in your piece of work. When a bibliography is used to accompany a reference list, it should be a list of sources that have informed your assignment but have not been directly cited.

Sometimes a work may include a bibliography, but no reference list. In this case the bibliography should be a list of all the sources that have informed your assignment whether cited or not.

The formatting of a bibliography should follow the same rules as the reference list.