Transport Issues website

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Glossary

10-year Plan

A New Deal for Trunk Roads
Agenda 21
Appraisal
Appraisal Summary Table

British Rail
Buchanan Report
Bypass

'Car Culture'
Carrots and Sticks
Civil Engineer
COBA [Cost-Benefit Analysis]
Commuting
Congestion
Congestion Charging
CTRL [Channel Tunnel Rail Link]

Department for Transport
Deregulation
Dualling

Environment
Environmental Impact Statement

GOMMS
Government
Government Department
GPS [Global Positioning System]
Green Travel

Highways Agency

Induced Traffic
Infrastructure
Integration
Interchanges
ITS [Intelligent Transport Systems]

Land Use
Light Rail
Local Government
Local Transport Plan

Mass rapid transit [MRT]
Modal Shift
Motorway
Multi-Modal Study

NATA
Network Rail/Railtrack

Park and Ride
Pollution
'Predict and Provide'
Public Inquiry
Public Transport

Rat-runs
Regeneration
Road Improvement
Road-user Charging
Road Safety
Roads Programme/Targeted Programme of Improvements
Road Widening

SACTRA [Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment]
Satellite Positioning
Smeed Report
Strategic Rail Authority (SRA)
Sustainability
Sustainable Transport

Traffic Calming
Traffic Forecasts
Trams and Metros
Transport Corridors
Transport For London
Transport Planning
Transport Select Committee
Travel Behaviour
Travel Plan
Trunk Road

Urban Blight
Urban Motorway

VMS [Variable Message Sign]

White Paper
Workplace Parking Levy

10-year Plan

The current UK Transport Policy Document, describing the government's vision for the UK's national transport network over the next 10-20 years.

A New Deal for Trunk Roads

The government's roads policy document prior to publication of the 10 year plan.

Agenda 21

Legislation emitting from the 1992 Rio de Janeiro earth summit requiring national governments to consider transport planning in the context of sustainability.

Appraisal

Mechanism used to establish whether a particular transport scheme should be constructed, when evaluated against various criteria. The government uses the 5-point NATA (New Approach to Appraisal).

Appraisal Summary Table

Summary of results from appraisal of a particular transport scheme in tabular form to allow analysis and easy comparison with other schemes.

British Rail

The publicly-owned UK railway. Was privatised in 1994 and split into Railtrack, who own the stations and track, and train operating companies who own the trains.

Buchanan Report

The 1963 'Traffic in Towns' Report into urban transport, with particular consideration given to roads.

Bypass

Road built to divert traffic away from built-up areas. Can range from a 1km local diversion to something like the M25, which is in effect a London bypass.

'Car Culture'

Ideology that one's life and activities has grown and evolves around using the car rather than public transport.

Carrots and Sticks

Positive incentives and negative detractors to, use of a particular type of transport method.

Civil Engineer

Varying descriptions. Ask Mr Askew for the best one!

COBA [Cost-Benefit Analysis]

Frequently used as an appraisal method.

Commuting

The use of a car (excluding taxi) to get to/from work or school.

Congestion

A very subjective term; no universal definition - interpreted differently by different people. Generally means traffic not able to flow freely, with speed only subject to speed limit.

Congestion Charging

Form of road-user charging, used as a tactic to reduce traffic congestion in certain areas by making the motorist pay for contributing to congestion.

CTRL [Channel Tunnel Rail Link]

Key UK infrastructure project and the first new railway to be built in the UK for over 100 years. Large-scale civil engineering and transport work involved.

Department for Transport

[Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions/Transport, Local Government and the Regions]
The UK Government department responsible for creation and implementation of all aspects of transport policy. Re-grouped and renamed by successive governments.

Deregulation

Removal of restrictions and barriers to competition in UK transport sectors, much occurrence in the 1980s.

Dualling

Widening an existing single carriageway to dual 2,3 or 4 lanes. Nearly always an'on-line' improvement rather than an alternative route.

Environment

Physical surroundings/conditions, including the atmosphere; often categorised as built or natural environment.

Environmental Impact Statement

Document outlining, in summary form, the impact a proposed [road] scheme will have on the environment and what mitigating measures have been used to protect it.

GOMMS

Guidance on the Methodology for Multi-Modal Studies similar to NATA, outlines the objectives that multi-modal studies should embody.

Government

Body of elected people who have responsibility for running the country and ensuring safety and welfare of the population.

Government Department

Government organisation responsible for producing research and reports, and forming government policy relating to a specific area (Eg. Transport, Health). Headed by a Minister of State and other (junior) ministers, who usually are MPs.

GPS [Global Positioning System]

Network of satellites orbiting the earth that can provide a user with geographical location information.

Green Travel

Any method of travel that is 'environmentally friendly' in terms of emissions and sustainability.

Highways Agency

An executive agency of the DTLR that has responsibility for the UK's motorway and trunk road network, in terms of operation, maintenance and improvements to it.

Induced Traffic

A phenomenon that many academics suggest occurs when a new road is built. Simply if a new road is built, then more cars will take to the road to fill it. However critics continue to argue the truthfulness of this theory.

Infrastructure

The support network for transport of information, utilities and people, that is telephone cables, sewers, roads and railways, for example.

Integration

The amalgamation of transport sectors to create a smoother travelling experience for the customer.

Interchanges

Linked with integration; the location where different modes of transport meet.

ITS [Intelligent Transport Systems]

The use of technology to aid journeys for travellers via all modes of transport.

Land Use

Term describing how land area is divided into different purposes, for example living, working, transportation.

Light Rail

A form of mass rapid transit which is a mix of bus and train. Versatile and environmentally friendly.

Local Government

Branch of central government which has delegated powers for a local area, in many departments.

Local Transport Plan

Transport policy document for a local area.

Mass rapid transit [MRT]

Overall term for ways of moving large numbers of people between short-medium length journeys in as efficient a way as possible.

Modal Shift

Overall movement of people from one form of transport to another for a particular journey. Usually applies to car-bus or car-train situations.

Motorway

Purpose-built, high-speed road designed to take long distance traffic throughout the UK.

Multi-Modal Study

Study commissioned by the government to examine, and find solutions to, problems relating to transport problems within a particular area.

NATA

The New Approach to Appraisal appraisal used by the government to assess road/transport schemes.

Network Rail/Railtrack

Company in charge of maintaining, improving and upgrading every aspect of the railway infrastructure, including the track, signalling systems, bridges and stations. Railtrack was taken over by Network Rail in 2002.

Park and Ride

System of town/city centre car parking where cars are parked remotely and passengers take shuttle buses into the town.

Pollution

Environmental contamination. An important consideration in the context of sustainable transport, relating to air/noise pollution.

'Predict and Provide'

The earliest, and perhaps most destructive road transport policy in the UK, whereby traffic levels were forecast, and capacity provided to meet this forecast.

Public Inquiry

A Forum to which members of the general public can make their views known on a transport, or indeed any building project. Decision on scheme often made based on what has been mentioned in a public enquiry.

Public Transport

Any form of transport which is not owned by the person who is using it. Basically, anything apart from a car or bicycle.

Rat-runs

Local shortcuts used by motorists to avoid traffic congestion, queues and junctions.

Regeneration

The renewal/improvement of previously developed areas that have become economically/environmentally depressed; most often used in the context of reviving economically deprived urban areas.

Road Improvement

Any form of enhancement to an existing road but usually means a new section of an established route, to avoid, for example, tight bends and side-roads.

Road-user Charging

Idea relating to charging road users for their use of a road. Can have many motives behind it.

Road Safety

Important in urban area particularly, but related to ideas making a road safer for all its users: motorists, cyclists and pedestrians.

Roads Programme/Targeted Programme of Improvements

The on-going 'waiting list' for road construction projects in the UK. Has been in existence since the 1950s and has changed dramatically in size and value over 50 years.

Road Widening

Usually means adding an extra lane to a motorway or existing dual carriageway road.

SACTRA [Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment]

Independent body that advises government on all matters relating to road transport.

Satellite Positioning

Technique such as GPS, used to calculate position of an object on the Earth.

Smeed Report

1964 Report on ways to reduce traffic congestion. Mention of road pricing.

Strategic Rail Authority (SRA)

The SRA provides overall strategic management and leadership for Britain's railways, lets and manages the Train Operating Companies' contracts, and develops and sponsors major infrastructure projects.

Sustainability

Defined as the need to enhance the environment, but at the same time protect it for the future. The 'capacity for continuance.'

Sustainable Transport

Ways and methods of travelling which do not have significant impact on the environment, often by definition, not including car use.

Traffic Calming

Any physical measure to reduce traffic speed in urban areas, e.g. road humps.

Traffic Forecasts

Projected figures of traffic flow at any point in the future. Either used to plan for extra capacity, or appraise existing capacity.

Trams and Metros

Older terms relating to light rail, but still remain types of mass rapid transit.

Transport Corridors

Established journeys between two places are made in a corridor, by various forms of transport. For example in the London-Manchester corridor, one could make a journey by road, rail, or air.

Transport For London

Transport for London (TfL) is the integrated body responsible for London's transport system. Its role is to implement the London Mayor's Transport Strategy, and manage the transport services across the capital for which the Mayor has responsibility.

Transport Planning

Exactly as it says, the policies and ideas by which all transport systems are planned!

Transport Select Committee

A cross-party group of MPs charged by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Department for Transport and its associated public bodies.

Travel Behaviour

Personal habits of travel, the choice of which mode of transport to use for a particular journey.

Travel Plan

A document produced by a company or organisation which outlines measures to reduce reliance on the car as a means of getting to work, and instead promotion of more environmentally friendly methods.

Trunk Road

Road of national importance, linking towns and cities. Varies heavily in standard from single lane to dual 4-lane carriageway.

Urban Blight

A term meaning a run-down area suffering from economic decline which has a negative image to outsiders.

Urban Motorway

Motorway in an urban area, characterised by elevated sections, flyovers and underpasses.

VMS [Variable Message Sign]

Usually a gantry- or post-mounted sign providing information to the road user about traffic conditions ahead, etc

White Paper

A document describing current government policy in a certain area.

Workplace Parking Levy

The idea of making employees pay to park their cars at work, in an effort to make them use alternative methods of transport.






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