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1.5.1 A ‘two currency’ world?

The introduction of the Euro threatens to have a significant impact on the international monetary economy as well as on the economies of the EU countries themselves. As yet this impact is not altogether clear since the Euro has only been operating for a few years. But certain trends are emerging and the possibilities are opening up. It is the main features of these trends that we concentrate upon in this section.

A preliminary point here is that the Euro exchange rate is not a policy va
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1.4.3 Summary

  • EMU has been accompanied by fiscal rules embodied in the SGP.

  • An issue raised by this is the compatibility of a common single monetary policy target designed to defeat inflation with different fiscal policies ostensibly at the discretion of the individual govern ments.

  • When France and Germany contravened the SGP fiscal rule, it was effectively suspended and broke down. This was a case of the Council of Ministers asserting c
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Acknowledgements

The material is contained in Citizenship: Personal Lives and Social Policy (ed. Gail Lewis) 2004, published in association with The Policy Press © The Open University, 2004. This publication forms part of the Open University course DD305, Personal Lives and Social Policy.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Author(s): The Open University

9 Conclusion

In this unit we have explored the mutual constitution of personal lives and social policy through an analysis of the implications of different aspects of citizenship on the lives of refugees and asylum seekers. We have seen that legislation, social policy and practice concerned with asylum have profound effects on personal lives. Crucially, we saw that the very words used to describe people, their access to welfare, rights to work, legal status and the procedures for becoming a British citize
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8.1.2Why do you think the Home Secretary did not draw on this research when interpreting the asylum

Considering these findings alongside the statistical data and our personal stories, we can draw some conclusions about the production and reproduction of knowledge about refugees and asylum seekers through research:

4.5 Summary

  • The EU as presently constituted is itself a product of globalisation, and here the impact of globalisation has been heightened by the central institutions of the EU directly encouraging regionalism and cross-border cooperation between regions to further its own political and economic integration.

  • Regionalism has also been indirectly boosted by other EU policies, particularly the development of the Single European Market since the late 1980s
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Acknowledgements

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Unit Image

Source: Kate Signorini

All other material within this unit originated
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9.5 Social work and the law in Scotland

In this unit you will be asked to reflect on the meanings of both social work and law. You will find that these concepts are open to a range of possible definitions, and that the functions of social work and law can change depending on the practice context. Their meaning is also affected by the perspective from which they are viewed, for example, the service user's experience of social work and law will not always match the expectations of the professional, or the perceptions of the general p
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7.3 What is poetry?

Have you always wanted to try to write poetry but never quite managed to start? This unit is designed to illustrate the techniques behind both the traditional forms of poetry and free verse. You will learn how you can use your own experiences to develop ideas and how to harness your imagination.

The unit introduces common techniques underlying free verse and traditional forms of poetry, and how it is necessary to use these techniques in order to harness what T.S. Eliot called the ‘log
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5.8 Finding information in art and history

This unit will help you to identify and use information in Arts and History, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of organi
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5.4 Dundee, jute and empire

This unit focuses on the economics of empire, and, in particular, of the British Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century. The theme of producers and consumers is central.

The unit starts by introducing some of the debates surrounding the economics of British imperialism. It then goes on to explore how empire and imperial trade shaped economic structures and urban society in late nineteenth-century Britain.

To access this material click on the unit link below. It leads
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References

Bem, S.L. (1989) ‘Genital knowledge and gender constancy in pre-school children’, Child Development, vol.60, pp. 649–62.
Beresford, P. and Croft, S. (1995) ‘It's our problem too! Challenging the exclusion of poor people form poverty discourse’, Critical Social Policy, 44–5, pp. 75–95.
Dean, H. (1992) ‘Poverty discourses and the disempowerment of
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3.3.1 Summary

  • Claims about who is poor are rooted in shared and contested ideas about the basic necessities of life.

  • The experience of poverty is both relative and relational. It is defined by what people have, and what they can do, relative to the opportunities of others.

  • Poverty carries derogatory meanings, so it does not easily provide a basis for collective identity.


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6 Further resources

Gilleard and Higgs (2000) more fully develop some of the ideas explored by Giddens (1994) in their useful and comprehensive introduction to post-structural readings of older age. Elder's (1977) life history account offers compelling insights into the intersections of class and gender through a socialist lens, and represents an early and interesting example of the life history and biographical method. Chamberlayne et al. (2000) provide comprehensive and thoughtful insights into biographical me
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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References

Anderson, M. (1993) ‘The social implications of demographic change’ in Thompson, F.M.L. (ed.) The Cambridge Social History of Britain Vol. 2, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Bainham, A. (1999) ‘Defining parenthood: parentage, parenthood and parental responsibility – subtle, elusive yet important distinctions’ in Bainham, A., Sclater, S.D. and Richards, M. (eds) What is a Parent? A Socio-Leg
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3.5 Birth control

The fertility decline in Britain was not the direct result of social policy aimed at reducing the birth rate. The deliberate use of birth control was widely condemned as unnatural and immoral by the medical profession, the church and a wide range of conventional opinion, even though doctors and vicars were the first to limit their own families. There was widespread ignorance about the mechanics of human reproduction and how to control it, but for those in the know there were many methods of c
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Unit Image

Courtesy of banlon1964: http://www.flickr.com/photos/banlon1964/19562661/

Gr
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References

Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, Verso.
Archard, D. (1995) ‘Myths, lies and historical truth: a defence of nationalism’, Political Studies, vol.43, no. 3.
Baogang He (2002) ‘Referenda as a solution to the national-identity/boundary question: an empirical critique of the theoretical lite
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