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7 Managing the BSE/vCJD episode: an overview

Having concentrated so far on the 'science' behind BSE and vCJD, we now turn our attention to how the episode was managed by scientists, politicians and other relevant decision makers. Not surprisingly, we shall find that the themes of communication, risk and ethical issues are inextricably linked to that of decision making (at local, national and international levels).

Over the years, the UK Government implemented a great many Orders and Regulations, amending several of these more than
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Japanese Vocab Builder #32 - Furniture
Learn Japanese with JapanesePod101.com! Our Japanese vocabulary lists are listener favorites, and now we’ve made it even better! In each lesson, you’ll hear the Japanese words and phrases from the Japanese vocabulary lists. Join us for Japanese Vocab Builder! In this lesson, you’ll learn words and phrases for Furniture. Click here to make your own flashcards [...]
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Rights not set

1.2.1 Rounding to the nearest hundred

You will probably think to yourself that the coat shown costs about £300. £290 is considerably closer to £300 than it is to £200, so £300 is a reasonable approximation. In this case, 290 has been rounded up to 300. Similarly, 208 would be rounded down to 200 because it is closer to 200 than it is to 300. Both numbers have been rounded to the nearest hundred pounds.

When rounding to the nearest hundred, anything below fifty rounds down. So 248 rounds to 200. Anything o
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1.2 Resource availability and species diversity

A wide range of ecosystems has been studied in terms of their species diversity and the availability of resources. Each produces an individual relationship between these two variables, but a common pattern emerges from most of them, especially when plant diversity is being considered. This pattern has been named the humped-back relationship and suggests diversity is greatest at intermediate levels of productivity in many systems (Figure 1.5).

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3.4 The Eddington Limit

Thus the observations require that a luminosity of around 100 times that of the entire Milky Way Galaxy be generated within a region with a diameter only about 1000 times that of the Earth's orbit! (A truly amazing statement.)

The most obvious mechanism for generating such enormous luminosity within such a tiny region of space is an accretion process, but instead of perhaps more familiar compact stars with masses ~M
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3.6 Protein kinases

Protein kinases phosphorylate proteins either at tyrosine residues (tyrosine kinases), or at serine and threonine residues (serine–threonine kinases), or on any of these three amino acids (dual-specificity kinases). All these activities are employed in signal transduction pathways (histidine kinases also operate in certain plant and bacterial pathways, but not in animals). You should now be familiar with receptor tyrosine kinases, and have seen in some detail how phosph
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8.5.2 Diario hablado

Actividad 8.5

Rearrange the following short dialogues, each of which contains fixed expressions that you have learned in this session, and read them out on your blank tape.

Ordene los diálogos y léalos en su cin
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Chapel Service - Week 11 - 10 May 2016 - Gary Millar - Luke 21-22
Gary Millar Chapel Sermon
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1 From drop-towers to Oblivion - some applications of linear motion

We have all experienced that momentary feeling of lightness when an elevator begins its downward motion. It is almost as if our weight had suddenly been reduced or, conceivably, that the pull of the Earth's gravity had decreased for a moment. But imagine what it would be like if the lift cable had suddenly snapped and the lift, with you in it, had plummeted downward. Apart from stark terror, what else do you think you would experience during your fall? What would the physical experience
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3 Somatic gene therapy

There is a distinction between somatic cells, those making up almost all of the body, and germline cells, which are the eggs and sperm and the cells that produce them. Somatic gene therapy is the transfer of genes into the somatic cells of the patient, such as cells of the bone marrow, and hence the new DNA does not enter the eggs or sperm. The genes transferred are usually normal alleles that could ‘correct’ the mutant or disease alleles of the recipient (see Study Note 2: The
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2.7.2 African Red Slip ware

The African Red Slip ware provides a clear case of an Italian range of artefacts being first imported to Africa and used, but then being copied and produced in Africa. The African production then develops its own characteristics and identity as an African product. This fits model 4 best, where the Italian prototype is taken over to produce something new, original and Afro-Roman.


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1.5.1 Light-gathering power

One of the key benefits of using a telescope is that it enables fainter objects to be detected than with the naked eye alone. The light-gathering power of a simple telescope used with an eyepiece is defined as

where Do is the
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6.3.3 Photomultiplier tubes and detection circuitry

The visible photons are collected by an array of photomultiplier tubes behind the crystal. These convert each visible photon to an electron and then multiply the number of electrons sufficiently to give a voltage pulse. Because the number of visible photons is proportional to the energy of the incoming gamma ray, the height of the pulse depends on this energy. This gives a method of counting the numbers of gamma photons at different energies that reach the crystal.

A resistive network c
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4.3 Managing projects and project teams

Projects take place within organisations whose structures, philosophies and cultures affect how work is planned and carried out. I shall briefly discuss organisations and how they go about planning as they relate to projects. Projects also exist within a social environment consisting of people who are affected by and have an influence on the outcome of projects.


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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to c
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1.4 The discovery of tidal heating

The Voyager fly-bys of the Jupiter system convinced planetary scientists that former preconceptions about 'dead' globes were wrong - even before Voyager 1 had got as far as Saturn, the mission had enabled them to identify a new heating mechanism to explain the discrepancies. The ease with which this revolution in thought was brought about was thanks to some of the Voyager images of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite. Io is only a fraction larger and denser than the Moon, and so by rig
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • use the Windows calculator to carry out basic operations and calculate percentages

  • interpret and use information presented in tables and charts

  • round numbers appropriately.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the issues surrounding public understanding of science

  • engage with some of the debates surrounding this topic.


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1.5 The Galileo mission

It was a long time before the Voyager missions were followed up by more detailed surveys of the outer planet satellites. No Uranus or Neptune missions are planned, but a mission to Saturn called Cassini-Huygens was launched in 1997 for arrival at Saturn in 2004. However, the Jupiter system received a similar visitor first. This was Galileo, launched in 1989, which became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter in December 1995. It continued to function through 2002, and was destroyed by plungin
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3.4.3 Simulated environmental tests

The investigators wanted to know about the fatigue properties of the component, to find a feasible explanation of why it took 39 years for the eye bar to break. They needed information on the several stress corrosion mechanisms that were possible in the material, including hydrogen embrittlement, the effects of sulphur compounds such as H2S (hydrogen sulphide) and the effects of moisture and salt. Notched eye-bar material was loaded to failure in various environments.

In fact
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