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Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy - Mental Status Exam - Speech Articulation Sub-exam - Patient 2
Patient is a 52-year-old African-American male with a known diagnosis of myotonic muscular dystrophy. His neuromuscular symptoms began in the early 1990s with poor dexterity in the hands, dropping objects, and clumsiness with fine motor weakness. He is very slow buttoning clothes, putting on his shoes, brushing his teeth, shaving, and other similar activities. He has trouble in ambulation and falls frequently. He has trouble getting up from a chair or sofa and climbing stairs. He also reports co
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Multiple Sclerosis - Reflexes Exam - Abnormal (Pathological) Sub-exam - Patient 18
Ed is a 57-year-old Caucasian male with a 15-year history of neurological disability that was diagnosed after his initial attack as multiple sclerosis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated the presence of numerous oligoclonal bands and MRI later showed multiple white matter plaques. Clinical history: He suffers from a significant dysarthria, as well as tremor and ataxia.
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Stroke - Cranial Nerves Exam - Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and Vagus (CN X) Sub-exam - Patient 19
This video features a 65-year-old right-handed white male. He was in the Air Force from 1962 until his retirement in 1982. The veteran reported that in 1995 he was diagnosed with inclusion body myositis. He first reported a problem in the early 1990s when carrying his briefcase. He noted problems lifting his right leg up to step onto the bus. Falls began around1994, prompting him to seek medical attention. The initial evaluation showed primarily lower motor neuron findings. He underwent several
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Spastic Paraplegia - Station and Gait Exam - Gait Sub-exam - Patient 5
This video features a 54-year-old white male with a history of spastic paraplegia (diagnosed in 1994) and no previous history of heart disease or cardiac workup. He presented to the Emergency Room complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain. Patient presented to the ER complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain, rated 3/10, lasting approximately 30 minutes, occurring multiple times daily at rest or during activity. The first episode occurred three days before
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Cervical Myelopathy - General Observations Exam - Opening Interview Sub-exam - Patient 13
This 46-year-old African American male presented with progressive weakness of the lower extremities for three months. He had increasing difficulty with walking and balance and now is unable to walk without assistance. He also complained of numbness and "pins and needles" sensation in the upper extremities with clumsiness and decreased dexterity in his right hand. He did not have neck or radicular pain and had no bowel or bladder problems or sexual dysfunction, but did have some urinary urgency.
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Primary Lateral Sclerosis - Cranial Nerves Exam - Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens (CN III, IV, V
This video features a 54-year-old white male who presented for evaluation of progressive spastic paraparesis. He stated that symptoms first started in 1997 when "things were different with my legs" (i.e., leg weakness, imbalance, and speech problems). Symptoms started in his left foot, when he couldn't keep time to music. His feet started dragging and he also noticed problems with balance. In 1999, he started falling and sought medical attention. He was diagnosed with spastic paraparesis after
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Spastic Paraplegia - Motor Exam - Muscle Strength Sub-exam - Patient 5
This video features a 54-year-old white male with a history of spastic paraplegia (diagnosed in 1994) and no previous history of heart disease or cardiac workup. He presented to the Emergency Room complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain. Patient presented to the ER complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain, rated 3/10, lasting approximately 30 minutes, occurring multiple times daily at rest or during activity. The first episode occurred three days before
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Cerebellar Degeneration - Motor Exam - Muscle Tone Sub-exam - Patient 17
This 62-year-old white male has had neurological problems dating back to 1990. His initial symptoms consisted of blurred vision and incoordination. When he turns his head to read road signs, his vision is distorted. Gait disturbances have progressed to the point that he is now extremely unsteady. He reels from side-to-side and hangs onto walls for balance. There has been progressive worsening in the dexterity of his hands. Writing, buttoning, holding equipment and manipulating small objects hav
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Spastic Paraplegia - Cranial Nerves Exam - Hypoglossal (CN XII) Sub-exam - Patient 5
This video features a 54-year-old white male with a history of spastic paraplegia (diagnosed in 1994) and no previous history of heart disease or cardiac workup. He presented to the Emergency Room complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain. Patient presented to the ER complaining of three days on-and-off retrosternal chest pain, rated 3/10, lasting approximately 30 minutes, occurring multiple times daily at rest or during activity. The first episode occurred three days before
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Multiple Sclerosis - General Observations Exam - Opening Interview Sub-exam - Patient 20
Janie is a 39-year-old Caucasian female who initially presented with weakness and L'Hermitte’s phenomena at the age of 35. Initially mistaken as a TIA, MRI of the brain revealed numerous plaques in the white matter suggesting Multiple Sclerosis. Her lumbar puncture initially failed to demonstrate the presence of oligoclonal bands, but since progression of the disease over the past few years bands have developed.
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Primary Lateral Sclerosis - Cranial Nerves Exam - Hypoglossal (CN XII) Sub-exam - Patient 14
This video features a 54-year-old white male who presented for evaluation of progressive spastic paraparesis. He stated that symptoms first started in 1997 when "things were different with my legs" (i.e., leg weakness, imbalance, and speech problems). Symptoms started in his left foot, when he couldn't keep time to music. His feet started dragging and he also noticed problems with balance. In 1999, he started falling and sought medical attention. He was diagnosed with spastic paraparesis after
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Primary Lateral Sclerosis - Station and Gait Exam - Station Sub-exam - Patient 14
This video features a 54-year-old white male who presented for evaluation of progressive spastic paraparesis. He stated that symptoms first started in 1997 when "things were different with my legs" (i.e., leg weakness, imbalance, and speech problems). Symptoms started in his left foot, when he couldn't keep time to music. His feet started dragging and he also noticed problems with balance. In 1999, he started falling and sought medical attention. He was diagnosed with spastic paraparesis after
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Parkinson Disease - Cranial Nerves Exam - Hypoglossal (CN XII) Nerve Sub-exam - Patient 10
The patient is a 68-year-old Caucasian male admitted to the VA on February 27, 2002, because of severe tremors and inability to walk due to chronic Parkinson Disease. This gentleman had been living with Parkinson Disease for many years and apparently, in spite of prescribed medications, had not improved or was getting worse. He experiences tremors, drooling, an inability to walk, and difficulty swallowing. Recently he had been unable to take the full dose of his carbidopa/levodopa medication du
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Multiple Sclerosis - Reflexes Exam - Muscle Stretch Sub-exam - Patient 20
Janie is a 39-year-old Caucasian female who initially presented with weakness and L'Hermitte’s phenomena at the age of 35. Initially mistaken as a TIA, MRI of the brain revealed numerous plaques in the white matter suggesting Multiple Sclerosis. Her lumbar puncture initially failed to demonstrate the presence of oligoclonal bands, but since progression of the disease over the past few years bands have developed.
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Cerebellar Degeneration - Motor Exam - Inspection Sub-exam - Patient 3
This 42-year-old man complains of poor balance and frequent falls for 6 years. Imbalance has been progressive; he cannot ambulate independently at present. He experiences tremors and weakness. Imbalance has been progressive and he now cannot ambulate independently. He is in good general health except for heavy alcohol use. For the last 10 years, he has consumed a quart of vodka and 5 beers daily. On awakening, he feels "shaky" and calms himself with a morning drink. He has not had blackouts or
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Urinary Catheterization - Male
This video demonstrates the urinary catheterization procedure in a 67 year old male patient admitted to hospital with a complaint of urinary retention. The specific procedure shown is the two-way, indwelling Foley catheter. The video covers the patient interview, preparing oneself for the procedure following all universal precautions, preparation of the equipment tray, insertion of the catheter using and maintaining sterile technique, catheter removal and appropriate disposal of all used equipme
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Beneath the Waters of Cocos Island
Cocos Island, a remote volcanic summit in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, serves as a beacon for hungry predators, including thousands of hammerhead sharks that travel here each year in search of prey. This video segment from NOVA: "Island of Sharks" depicts some of the common predator-prey interactions that take place in the nutrient-rich waters surrounding the island.
Author(s): WGBH Educational Foundation

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Rights not set

Air Bag Design
Do you need proof that driving is a dangerous activity? More Americans have died in car crashes over the past 100 years than in all the wars the U.S. has ever fought combined. More than 40,000 Americans die each year on the nation's highways, most as the result of high-speed collisions. In this video segment adapted from NOVA, learn how engineers developed the air bag, an important automobile-safety device now found in most cars. Recommended for: Grades 3-12
Author(s): WGBH Educational Foundation

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"A Sweepstakes Attracts Attention": Corporate Executives Defend Sweepstakes Promotions
In the 1960s, lottery-like contests designed to publicize products through sweepstakes competitions spread rapidly. In the 19th century, every state banned lotteries--defined as competitions in which chances to win prizes were sold÷to protect citizens. In 1868, Congress prohibited the distribution of lottery materials through the mail. The mid-20th century sweepstakes, however, did not require contestants to purchase tickets or products to win prizes and were thus considered legal. In 1966, the
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"A Square Deal?": The Michigan CIO Debates the No-Strike Pledge
In a total war like World War II, the question "Was everyone doing his or her 'part'?" inevitably arose. Immediately following Pearl Harbor, the labor movement made an "unconditional no-strike pledge" to help win the war. In turn, labor won some important concessions from the federal government. Some who believed that labor had given up too much responded with "wildcat" (unauthorized) strikes. Others moved to reconsider the no-strike pledge. In 1942 members of the Michigan CIO endorsed the no-st
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