Middle School Portal: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2)
This site contains questions that parents can ask their daughters concerning their feelings towards math, science, and career aspirations; provides biographies of role models; and provides links to additional resources. Studies show that girls and boys share an overwhelming number of characteristics. They have the same capacity to succeed in reading, writing and mathematics. And until puberty begins, they have similar physical development, so that coed teams before puberty would have as many out
Biosensors: Past, Present and Future
A unique website covering material not found in textbooks and provides a balanced viewpoint on relevant properties and characteristics of biosensors. Contents were copyrighted in 1996.
Future Directions in the Law Regulating Weaponry in Armed Conflict
A discussion on future directions in the law regulating weaponry in armed conflict to mark the release of Bill Boothby's new book Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict. Bill Boothby has served for 27 years as an officer in the Royal Air Force legal branch. He developed and implemented the British system for the legal review of new weapons, and formed and led the team charged with conducting these reviews. Tom Porteus is London director of Human Rights Watch.
Steps still being taken to undo damage of America's Nuremberg
The year 1947 was a watershed for medical ethics and medical care. Fifty years ago, the Nuremberg Code, created in response to the atrocities of Nazi medicine, called for the informed consent of participants in human research. That same year, penicillin was recognized as the standard of care for syphilis. Researchers from the U.S. Public Health Service failed to connect these two milestones. They continued to conduct a long-running study in Tuskegee, Alabama, on the course of syphilis in untrea
Minority Health Facts IN RHODE ISLAND
This report provides information about major health indicators in the racial and ethnic minority populations of Rhode Island defined by the Office of Management and Budget (Directive 15) as: • African American/Black: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. • Asian and Pacific Islander (API): A person having origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Vietnam, Cam
HEALTHY INDIANA – A MINORITY HEALTH PLAN FOR THE STATE OF INDIANA
We are proud to present the Healthy Indiana - Minority Health Plan for the State of Indiana. This is another significant step forward in addressing the health disparities of minorities in our state. In March 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a report with startling revelations about health care delivery for minorities. The report was titled "Unequal Treatment: What Healthcare Providers Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare." Not surprisingly, the IOM found t
Cochrane Bridge, Mobile, Alabama
This image is a colorized photograph of Cochrane Bridge near Mobile, Ala.
Were Tuskegee & Willowbrook 'studies in nature'?
The book jacket of Bad Blood, James Jones's recent account of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, describes the project as one in which "science went mad". Apparently the case is exceptional, an aberration from normal biomedical research behavior. But put the Tuskegee experiment alongside the Willowbrook experiments of the 1950s and 1960s, in which retarded and institutionalized children were injected with live hepatitis viruses, and clearly something other than "mad science" was at stake. Both p
Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
In 1932 the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated an experiment in Macon County, Alabama, to determine the natural course of untreated, latent syphilis in black males. The test comprised 400 syphilitic men, as well as 200 uninfected men who served as controls. The first published report of the study appeared in 1936 with subsequent papers issued every four to six years, through the 1960s. When penicillin became widely available by the early 1950s as the preferred treatment for syphilis, t
Readings in the History of Aesthetics
Anyone with connection to the Internet has access to a vast number of philosophical documents via online etexts. Fortunately, quite a bit of the best work in philosophy is in the public domain, and a few of these readings provide a convenient access for almost anyone seeking information and help in the history of aesthetics. However, many of the historically significant writings in aesthetics are not presently available on the Internet, and this open source text helps somewhat to remedy that nee
Hermann Hesse's Siddhartha
Almost all major works in philosophy and literature are accessible via online sources on the Internet. Fortunately, much of the best work in philosophy and literature is available in the public domain. A translation of Herman Hesse's Siddhartha, in particular, became available through Project Gutenberg by Michael Pullen. This edited version of that text is subject to the legal notice following the title page referencing the GFDL License. By placing this edited reading selection under the GFDL, t
Canary in a Coal Mine (MWV16)
Coral reefs are dying a death of a thousand cuts and their disappearance threatens not only the incredibly diverse ecosystem that depends on them, but also human health and welfare. In this episode of MicrobeWorld Video marine scientists Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Ph.D., chair of marine studies at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, and Kiho Kim, Ph.D., director of the environmental studies program at American University, explain the important relationship between microbes and corals,
Prostate Cancer Screening Decision Making Under Controversy: Implications for Health Promotion Pract
Prostate cancer is a major health problem for U.S. men and is characterized by paradoxes and controversies. Despite the wide availability of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, prostate cancer screening remains a controversial practice mainly because the direct impact of screening on mortality is not yet proven. As the relative value of screening, early detection, and treatment strategies continue to be debated, glaring racial-ethnic disparities persist with African American men experienci
The Role of Community Advisory Boards: Involving Communities in the Informed Consent Process
Ethical research involving human subjects mandates that individual informed consent be obtained from research participants or from surrogates when participants are not able to consent for themselves.The existing requirements for informed consent assume that all study participants have personal autonomy; fully comprehend the purpose, risks, and benefits of the research; and volunteer for projects that disclose all relevant information. Yet contemporary examples of lapses in the individual informe
A New Tool for Epidemiology: The Usefulness of Dynamic Agent Models in Understanding Place Effects o
A major focus of recent work on the spatial patterning of health has been the study of how features of residential environments or neighborhoods may affect health. Place effects on health emerge from complex interdependent processes in which individuals interact with each other and their environment and in which both individuals and environments adapt and change over time. Traditional epidemiologic study designs and statistical regression approaches are unable to examine these dynamic processes.
The Persistence of American Indian Health Disparities
Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes
Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed this Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness to respond to prevention service providers, planners, and others who request science-based interventions that work to prevent HIV transmission. All interventions selected for this Compendium came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. We required des
Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness
Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population w
A Debate about the Definition of 'Britishness'
As the composition of British society transforms with immigration and transnational identities, ideas about the notion of 'Britishness' are changing too. In the interest of a cohesive citizenry, must the UK return to 'core British values'? Or should Britain's identity change with its population? Should a British identity even exist? Sir Bernard Crick is emeritus professor of Birkbeck College and author of Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship, the basis for the UK citizenship exam
The Ideas that are Changing Politics
There has been an extraordinary surge in the study of behaviour from evolutionary biologists, neurologists and game theorists, but this has been largely divorced from the political debate. David Willetts will draw on the latest research from these disciplines to explain what Government can and cannot do to influence our behaviour. David Willetts is shadow secretary of state for innovation, universities and skills and has been the MP for Havant since 1992. He was shadow secretary of state for wor