Further reading

Berger and Luckmann (1967) is a classic text in the development of the social constructionist perspective within the sociological tradition. Burr (1995) offers a very thorough review of the social constructionist perspective, clearly outlining the methods of discourse analysis. Although the book draws significantly on debates within social psychology, it is of wide relevance to the social sciences more generally.


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3.1 Competing explanations of social problems

If we can agree that poverty is a social problem, we are led to another question: what sort of social problem is it? For some, it is a social problem because people should not be poor: it involves social injustice. For others, poverty is a social problem because poor people behave badly (or bring up children poorly): it involves social disorder. We therefore have another parting of the ways, with some believing that social justice requires poor people to become less poor, and others believing
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Systems thinking: Understanding sustainability
In the increasingly complex world of change and uncertainty, particularly in the context of climate change, the notion of sustainability is often raised as the key issue for decision making in the 21st Century. But 'sustainability' is itself a contentious term and often used in misguided ways, depending on the context of use. This unit introduces ways in which systems thinking can help support processes of decision making among stakeholders with different, often contrasting, perspectives on sust
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1 Why is information security important?

This unit introduces you to information security and its management.

A succinct definition of information security might run as follows:

Information security is the collection of technologies, standards, policies and management practices that are applied to information to keep it secure.

But why is it important to secure information? And how should its security be managed? To s
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4.3 A commercial implementation

In order to conclude this section I shall describe a commercial implementation of an object bus. It has been developed by a company known as SoftWired Ltd and is known as iBus. It is based on TCP/IP rather than UDP. The facilities offered by the iBus API provide developers with the facilities to construct objects which can subscribe to channels and to transmit any Java object to a channel. The code for a transmitter is shown below; the import statements are not shown. In
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5.2.1 Discrete variables

The charts about different modes of transport and that on attendance figures at a range of cultural events all use what might be called ‘word categories’. Each category (e.g. bus, rail, cycle, and walk) is quite distinct from any other in the set of categories. Such distinct categories are known in mathematics as ‘discrete variables’.

Word categories are not the only type of variable that is discrete; numbers can also be discrete. For example, at the beginning of this section, w
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References

Gould, P. and White, R. (1974) Mental Maps, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Knox, P. and Agnew, J. (1989) The Geography of the World Economy, London, Edward Arnold.
Further reading
Smith, R. (1997) Simple Map Reading, Edinburgh, HMSO. This is a short handbook on the techniques of map reading, explained in a str
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3.6 Different paradigms and different methods

These different methods alert us to the fact that psychology is not just one enterprise, but a series of interlocking enterprises in which psychologists have different views about the best ways to try to understand or explain people and their behaviour and experience. These are arguments about epistemology; that is, what questions to ask, what sort of evidence to look for, what sort of criteria to use to evaluate explanations, and what sort of methods to use.

All knowledge and al
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2.3.2 Inner experiences

A second kind of data is people's inner experiences, including their feelings, beliefs and motives. These cannot be directly seen from the outside; they remain private unless freely spoken about or expressed in some other way. Examples of these inner experiences include feelings, thoughts, images, representations, dreams, fantasies, beliefs and motivations or reasons. These are only accessible to others via verbal or written reports or as inferred from behaviours such as non-verbal communicat
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2 A day in the life of a hospital ward

In 1996, we visited Ward 29, one of two gastroenterology wards in the medical unit, and recorded the views of patients and staff. The ward has 24 beds. Its patients were women and men, across a wide age range, suffering from digestive disorders – for example, stomach ulcers, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cancers of the digestive system or problems with liver function brought on by alcohol abuse. Because it was winter the ward had more elderly people than it would have at other times
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Importing tapeless assets in Media Browser
Import footage from tapeless sources with the Media Browser, identifying single clips from the various files that make them up.
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