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6 Concluding thoughts

We seem to have come a long way and covered a great deal of ground since I approached this subject by explaining that a mechanism must exist to help us focus on one sound out of many. That clearly is one function of attention, but attention seems to have other functions too. The results of visual search experiments show that attention is a vital factor in joining together the features that make up an object, and the experiences of brain-damaged patients suggest that this feature-assembly role
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5.4 Summary of Section 5

Many familiar themes have re-emerged in this section, together with the recognition that attention is involved in the assembly of remembered material as well as of current perceptions.

  • Attention is associated with the generation of perceptual objects.

  • In addition to being an essential part of external stimulus processing, attention influences remembered experiences.

  • ERP data show that cortical signals derived from una
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5.3 Event-related potentials

When a sense organ (eye, ear, etc.) receives a stimulus, the event eventually causes neurons to ‘fire’ (i.e. produce electrical discharges) in the receiving area of the brain. The information is sent on from these first sites to other brain areas. With appropriate apparatus and techniques it is possible to record the electrical signals, using electrodes attached to the scalp. The electrical potentials recorded are called event-related potentials (ERPs), since they dependably follow
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Module team

Open University staff

Dr Dorothy Miell, Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (Course Team Chair)

Dr Paul Anand, Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences

Peter Barnes, Lecturer in Centre for Childhood, Development and Learning, Faculty of Education and Language Studies

Pam Berry, Key Compositor

Dr Nicola Brace, Lecturer in Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences

Dr Nick Braisby, Lectur
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4.4.6 Do – seek additional funding for expensive adjustments

If a reasonable adjustment requires extra resources, such as using more expensive but accessible software, course providers should ask whether their institutions receive government funding for disabled students and bid for extra resources.


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4.4.5 Do – provide information

Clear information for students and advisors is essential. Disabled students need to know whether they can complete all the learning objectives and what adjustments they can expect. They need this information in good time before they start the course so that they can plan ahead. We have more to say on this subject in the section, ‘Informing students’.


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4.4.4 Do – provide alternative academic content

There is a difference between supplying deaf students with a simple transcript of an interview, which is a straightforward translation between formats, and providing blind students with an alternative to a visual image. In some cases, a transcript may require an academic decision about whether to transcribe every ‘um’ and ‘er’ or background noise. Decisions about alternative academic content need to be taken by the author of a resource, or someone with the same understanding of the in
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4.4.3 Do – consider the impact of alternative study methods and helpers

The impact is related to the two types of barrier mentioned above and the intended learning outcomes of an activity. For example, does it contradict the learning objectives if a deaf student relies on a transcript or subtitles for a specific activity? A student may wish to use a helper for course components that cannot be made accessible to them. Returning to the example of someone who cannot hold a stylus, will it be the same experience if they observe someone else using a mobile device?


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1.5.2 Disability statistics

United Nations Statistics Division, ‘Human functioning and disability’

USA National Center for Health Statistics, Surveys and data collection systems


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1.2 Considering disabled people

Disabled people were among the early adopters of personal computers. They were quick to appreciate that word processing programs and printers gave them freedom from dependence on others to read and write for them. Some became very knowledgeable about what could be achieved and used their knowledge to become independent students at a high level. They also gained the confidence to ask that providers of education make adjustments so that disabled students could make better use of course software
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1.1 Why include accessibility in innovation?

In countries where the use of computers and the web in daily life is widespread, many disabled people now have better and more independent access to information and communication. New technology developments can make this access easier, but they can also raise new barriers. These barriers can often be removed by considering the needs of disabled users when designing and implementing computer interfaces. This is what we are talking about when we use the term ‘accessibility’.

As commo
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • be able to discuss the main challenges facing disabled students in eLearning;

  • have an understanding of the types of technology used by disabled students;

  • be able to consider what adjustments you might make in your own role;

  • be able to discuss disability and adjustments with colleagues involved in putting teaching into a virtual learning environment.


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Introduction

Accessibility for disabled students is a topic which could be included in any area of the curriculum. Most education professionals are aware that they should consider it, but are unsure of what it means, the implications for their role and where to get information. This unit addresses that need.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extracted from Innovations in elearning (H807) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you
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References

Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. (1997) Young people and physical activity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Department for Education and Employment & Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (1999) The National Curriculum for Physical Education, London, QCA.
Department of Health (2004) Chief Medical Officer, At least five a week: Evidence on the impact of physical
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4 Encouraging physical activity

The proportion of children who were active for 60 or more minutes in 7 days in the last week was calculated. Overall, a higher proportion of boys than girls achieved the recommended levels – 70% of boys compared with 61% of girls. Among boys, the proportion active for at least 60 minutes on 7 days did not vary markedly with age. In contrast, levels of physical activity among girls declined from about age 11.

(Source:
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3 The challenge of change

…although we may be striving to turn a profession that has the inertia of a supertanker, as individuals each of us is a speed boat that can turn on a dime…

(Pate and Hohn (1994), p. 217)

The American authors of the quote above suggest that PE needs to change so that it places primary emphasis on the promotion of lifelong exercise. However, they consider that this could be slow and difficult
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Introduction

We know that the brain has a hugely important role to play in the students' learning that goes on in our classrooms. However, surprisingly, scientists still know relatively little about the workings of the brain, and most of what we do know has been discovered only in the last 15 years. Our challenge is to ensure that what we do know about the brain is translated into classroom practice and used to maximise student learning – this is the idea at the heart of Accelerated Learning. This unit
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1 Performance management

Figure 1

Learning outcomes

The aim of this unit is to:

  • raise awareness of the process and principles of performance management/appraisal in schools;

  • identify the negative aspects of appraisal systems and consider how these might be overcome;

  • enhance understanding of the role of the governing body in the performance review process, especially in relation to reviewing the headteacher's performance;

  • encourage discussion of performance with regard to pay awards, an
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