3.5 Summary

Phenomenologists focus on how bodies are experienced at a subjective and intersubjective (relational) level. Phenomenological psychologists seek to transcend the mind-body dualism, arguing that all we have is an intelligent body, with the body and mind one and the same: not simply biology; we are our body and, through this, perform selfhood. This bodily experience is also often pre-reflective and extra-discursive – we experience and use our body before we think about it. And it is through u
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2.2 Body as ‘identity project’

In Western culture, television ‘makeover’ shows in which individuals opt for plastic surgery or are given advice on clothes, makeup, diet and exercise have gained considerable popular appeal. It seems that large numbers of people are buying into the idea that lives can be radically changed through such makeovers. Supposedly unattractive people who are unhappy with their lives are transformed into supposedly more beautiful and happy people leading satisfying lives. In reality, however, doe
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this study unit you will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of fundamental aspects of the theory and methodology underpinning phenomenological psychology;

  • critique simplistic mind–body, individual–social and agency–structure dualisms and appreciate how the body, self and society are interconnected;

  • describe how phenomenological psychologists conceptualise the body.


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Further reading

Styles, E.A. (1997) The Psychology of Attention, Hove, Psychology Press. A very readable textbook, which covers and extends the topics introduced in this unit.

Pashler, H. (ed.) (1998) Attention, Hove, Psychology Press. An edited book, with contributors from North America and the UK. Topics are dealt with in rather more depth than in the Styles book.


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1.4 Eavesdropping on the unattended message

It was not long before researchers devised more complex ways of testing Broadbent's theory of attention, and it soon became clear that it could not be entirely correct. Even in the absence of formal experiments, common experiences might lead one to question the theory. An oft-cited example is the cocktail party effect. Imagine you are attending a noisy party, but your auditory location system is working wonderfully, enabling you to focus upon one particular conversation. Suddenly, from
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Introduction

For many of us the concept of attention may have rather negative connotations. At school we were told to pay attention, making us all too aware that it was not possible to listen to the teacher while at the same time being lost in more interesting thoughts. Neither does it seem possible to listen effectively to two different things at the same time. How many parents with young children would love to be able to do that! One could be excused for feeling that evolution has let us down by failing
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2.3.4 Symbolic data

The fourth kind of data is essentially symbolic – symbolic creations of minds, such as the texts people have written, their art, what they have said (recorded and transcribed), the exact ways they use language and the meanings they have communicated. These symbolic data are the products of minds, but once created they can exist and be studied and analysed quite separately from the particular minds that created them. These kinds of data are used to provide evidence of meanings, and th
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1 Lights – can DV illuminate teaching?

TV, mobiles, gaming consoles – students interact with digital media every day. Indeed, inbuilt digital cameras on mobiles have become increasingly popular with a generation that demands the freedom to interact with digital imagery any time, anywhere. If this need can be harnessed, digital media has an important and powerful role to play in education.

Do you want to engage students in a lesson that will encourage the development skills listed below:


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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • Develop an appreciation of the impact digital video has on learning and teaching;

  • Assess what hardware and software you need to deploy DV in your classroom;

  • Become familiar with filming and editing techniques;

  • Plan and deliver a project that uses DV as a teaching tool.


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References

OFSTED (2001) Making it Better: Improving School Governance, London, OFSTED.
Creese, M. (1995) Effective Governors, Effective Schools: developing the relationship, London, David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

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1 The importance of school governors

I wouldn't have accepted the job if I didn't think that the governors understood their role.

(A secondary headteacher)

In March 2004, the DfES stated that school governors represented one per cent of the adult population, and constitute the single biggest volunteer force nationally. However, doing the job voluntarily does not mean that governors should aim to do it less than professionally!


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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5.6.5 Software

IBM, ‘Software accessibility’ guidelines and checklist,

IBM Human Ability and Accessibility Center

Trace Research and Development Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison,‘Application software design guidelines’


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5.6.4 Educational software/learning application

Barstow, C. andRothberg, M. (2002) IMS Guidelines for Developing Accessible Learning Applications

Hardware

IBM, ‘Hardware accessibility’ checklist.


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5.4.1 Aim of accessibility evaluation

The aim of an accessibility evaluation is to assess the extent of the accessibility of the teaching resource: not to evaluate whether it is or is not accessible. In other words, the question to ask is ‘To what extent is this product accessible to people with a range of disabilities?’ rather than ‘Is this product accessible?’ An accessibility evaluation should assess both technical accessibility and usable accessibility.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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4 Useful addresses

Advisory Centre for Education Ltd (ACE)

Tel: 0808 800 5793 (2–5pm, Monday to Friday)

1C Aberdeen Studios, 22 Highbury Grove, London N5 2DQ.

Website: www.ace-ed.org.uk/

An independent advice centre for parents, offering information on state education in England and Wales for 5 –16 year olds. Produces a Special Education Handbook.

Alliance for Inclusive Education (Allfie)

Tel: 020 7737 6030

336 Brixton Road, London SW9 7AA


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3.1 Introduction

Activity 2: Meeting legal requirements in Scotland

The following PDF document contains pages from Section 11 of the Open University publication ‘The Legal Framework’, which was written for the OU Masters Programme in Education.


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2 Online learning – What does the research tell us?

Marion Coomey and John Stephenson review a range of research to try to set out what designers of online learning should learn from experience.

Activity 2

1 hour 0 minutes

Read the article by
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1.2 Copyright and OER

I assume that you are reading this unit because you would like to create a unit similar to the materials that you can find on the OpenLearn website. You therefore have a teaching purpose and are particularly interested in the use of online tuition. Hopefully you are also keen to share your teaching materials with others in OpenLearn Works. But why bother creating a new Open Educational Resource? Surely there is so much material already available for free on the web anyway!

I would answe
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