7 Citizenship as ‘participation in social life’

If ‘citizenship, as social practice, is manifested by direct or indirect participation in public life, by both individuals and groups’ (Kastoryano, 2002, p. 143), then opportunities for asylum seekers and refugees to participate is crucial. Young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Milton Keynes (not one of the government's ‘cluster areas’) were very clear about what participation meant for them: ‘secure housing, full-time education, special language training, friends and community s
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4.1 The context and significance of the historical moments under consideration

The two historical moments we are considering were not chosen arbitrarily; they are both significant times in the overall history of people seeking asylum in the UK. Some important relationships between them give us a starting point for looking at continuities and discontinuities in both policy and experience.

Firstly, Lotte and Wolja were admitted to the UK under the 1905 Aliens Act. This was the first fully implemented legal attempt to control the entry of ‘foreigners’ into the UK
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Introduction

This unit serves as a gateway to over 30 units that have been specifically developed to reflect the enormous interest in Scottish culture and society. The collection of units as a whole demonstrates The Open University's commitment to delivering a curriculum that is appropriate for the differing requirements of each of the countries within the United Kingdom.

These units have been collected and developed from across The Open University's catalogue, chosen because of their particular rel
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3.1 ‘Making ends meet’

When you say that someone is ‘poor’, what do you mean?

Do people whom others call ‘poor’ always see themselves in that way?

One group whose identities are greatly constrained by income are the poor. But, as the questions above suggest, poverty is not a simple fact of some lives: rather, it is a concept with different meanings, and a label that we may accept or reject. This section c
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3.1 The idea of problematic places

Katrina offers us a rich case study through which we have begun to explore some of the concerns surroundng problem places or populations. In reflecting on the controversies that emerged in the aftermath of Katrina, we can see that for some commentators it was a ‘problem place’ long before the hurricane struck in 2005. The idea that different places can be seen as problematic is a recurring theme that emerges in the context of ongoing debates around poverty and inequality, and the relation
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • identify the value and best way of note taking.


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1.6.6 Professional bodies and societies

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions).This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D315: Crime, order and social control, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.

© 2007
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Introduction

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this subject area.


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6.7 What about alternatives to secession?

We have seen that in principle there are alternatives: cultural autonomy or a form of federalism. There are alternative ways to recognise 'national' identity apart from secession.

One conclusion to arise from this discussion of secession is that we are not cast adrift without any general principles or guidelines. We have also seen how the complexities of the real political world impinge upon poli
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7.1 History

So far, I have provided a brief historical background for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, one that accounts for their distinctive identities and for the origins of their differing role within the UK. I have also defined devolution as an asymmetric decentralisation process which responds to the claims advanced by the nations constituting the UK state. What, then, do we mean by Britain? Is it a nation? If so, when did the British nation begin to exist? The historian Linda Colley
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material within this unit:

Text

Seton-Watson, H. (1985) ‘What is Europe, where is Europe? From mystique to politique,’ Encounter, Vol. LXV, No. 2, July/August 1985, Encounter Ltd; Churchill, W. S. (1946) ‘The tragedy of Europe’, Speeches of Winston Churchill, Cassell. Reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Ltd, London, on behalf o
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16.4 The network

The term ‘network’ is used to describe some very different interconnected systems. In a home setting, you might have just two computers linked together to share documents and devices (such as a printer and a scanner) and to use the same internet connection. This setup is a network, albeit a small one. At the other end of the scale is a multinational company with a network of computers distributed all over the world.

A network belonging to a single organisation, where the computers a
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12.1 Introduction

Data must be stored somewhere when it is not being manipulated. Modern ICT systems require increasingly large amounts of data to be stored for later use, and it is important that the data can be accessed quickly. Data may be stored on the stand-alone computer's hard disk in the form of files.

You may want to move files from one stand-alone computer to another. In addition, you may want to move files from a device, such as a digital camera, to a computer. These activities require some fo
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3.2.4. Ethics

The Turnbull Report, and a series of other codes relating to corporate governance, highlight some of the ethical principles which guide managers in the public and private sectors. In many cases, such codes are produced only after crises have occurred. Much legislation comes about in the same way. Information security management also has an ethical aspect, not least because of the need to apply the ethical spirit of laws and codes of conduct in new and unfamiliar circumstances.

The Orga
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Introduction

Enterprise systems are software applications that automate and integrate all many of the key business processes of an organisation. With some understanding of software development, you will learn about current development practices for this type of system and develop relevant skills to apply them to real-world problems. You will develop core skills in object-oriented analysis and design, allowing you to develop software that is fit for purpose, reusable and amenable to change.

This unit
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6.1 Further reading

There is not a lot published on distributed development paradigms. The book by Coulouris et al. [2] indirectly introduces some of the paradigms introduced in this unit. Lynch's book [3] on distributed algorithms is full of algorithms which are message passing based. The book by Patzer and 14 others [4] is a good practical introduction to many of the technologies detailed in this unit. One of the few current books on JavaSpaces has been written by Freeman et al. [1].


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4.3 A commercial implementation

In order to conclude this section I shall describe a commercial implementation of an object bus. It has been developed by a company known as SoftWired Ltd and is known as iBus. It is based on TCP/IP rather than UDP. The facilities offered by the iBus API provide developers with the facilities to construct objects which can subscribe to channels and to transmit any Java object to a channel. The code for a transmitter is shown below; the import statements are not shown. In
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6.1.1 The user interface

An interface to a washing machine does not need to be like the interface to a personal computer (a user interface is a display/control panel that enables the user to control a machine or interact with a program). It is specific to the task of washing laundry, which involves two things:

  1. displaying the choices that relate to washing laundry (such as type of laundry to be washed, water temperature, and spin speed);

  2. displaying some indica
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