References

Barham, P. (1997) Closing the Asylum: The Mental Patient in Modern Society, London, Penguin.
Barnes, M. and Walker, A. (1996) ‘Consumerism versus Empowerment: a principled approach to the involvement of older service users’, Policy and Politics, 24 (4) pp.375–93.
Blofeld, J. (2003) Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett, Cambridge, Nor
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4.2 Essential shared capabilities for mental health

While professional groups will be expected to retain their distinctive roles to some extent, the demand for change is increasingly strong. Professionals are increasingly expected to focus on the range of elements of good practice which they share, many of which have been historically associated with social work. One important example of the demand for change in this direction can be found in the introduction in England of The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities: A Framework for the Whole of
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4.1 Mental health specialists

Social workers are often regarded as the chief proponents of the social model of mental health. Because of the value-base of social work, they are also often seen as being in a strong position to challenge inequality and address the consequences of stigma and discrimination in mental health. In this section you will see how other professionals are increasingly expected to emphasise similar goals in The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities for mental health professionals.

As well as
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3.2 Racism in mental health services

Research has shown that people from particular minority ethnic groups are over-represented in some psychiatric diagnostic categories compared with others. One of the most hotly debated issues concerns what appears to be the relatively high number of African-Caribbean men who receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia, compared with white or other minority ethnic groups. Given what you have seen about the difficulties in defining mental health and illness, it will be no surprise to learn that
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3.1 Understanding stigma

In the first half of Section 3, the focus is on the nature of the stigmatisation and discrimination which can be experienced by people with mental health problems. The section then turns to consider racism in mental health services and the impact this has on black service users.

The ‘stigma’ of mental illness and distress refers to the idea that such experiences are a disgrace or an embarrassment, not only to the person concerned, but also to those around them. To be mentally distre
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2 Social work skills: empowerment and advocacy

Qualified social workers are expected to have the necessary skills to empower service users to participate in assessments and decision making and also to ensure that service users have access to advocacy services if they are unable to represent their own views. The requirement for these skills can be found in the key role ‘Support, representation and advocacy’. Both empowerment and advocacy are concerned with power and the ways in which it is distributed between people. Empowerment and ad
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1.4 A community resource centre in action

It is clear that the well-being of communities and the well-being of the individuals within them are intrinsically linked. The Orchard Centre is a community resource centre for people with mental health problems in Bonnyrigg in Midlothian, Scotland.

Figure 1
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1.2 Boundaries between mental health and illness

Activity 1: What is mental ‘health’?

0 hours 20 minutes

What do you think it means if someone is described as ‘mentally healthy’? Think of all the different ways of describing ‘mental he
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1.1 Introduction

Like many subjects, mental health is complex. This is partly because the language used in discussions about mental health is diverse, can mean different things to different people, and can sometimes be misleading. For example, the term ‘mental health’ is usually used in discussions about just the opposite: ‘mental illness’! There are, however, good reasons for the confusion surrounding its language. One reason is that decisions about what constitutes ‘mental health’, ‘men
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • distinguish between mental health and mental illness;

  • give examples of how community resource centres can benefit the well being of individuals and communities in terms of mental health.


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Introduction

This unit explores a number of issues relating to mental health practice. It starts by helping you define and understand the difference between mental health and mental illness. It also explores the discrimination that can arise when people experience some form of mental distress. You will look at how professionals working within the community can counter some of the effects of discrimination and stigma and contribute to the well-being of the wider community, as well as those who use their se
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Acknowledgements

>Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content ackn
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References

Alcohol Concern (2002) Report on the Mapping of Alcohol Services in England, London, Alcohol Concern.
Arnon, R., Degli Esposti, S. and Zern, M. A. (1995) ‘Molecular biological aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease,’ Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 19, pp. 247–256.
Buonopane, A. and Petrakis, I. (2005) ‘Pharmacology of alcohol use
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Revision questions

Question 1

Drinking alcohol produces a complex set of effects on a number of body systems.

  • (a) On which system are the main acute effects most likely to lead to sudden death, and why?


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Summary

  1. The main acute effects of ethanol are on the nervous system, causing characteristic changes in behaviour and judgement. There are particular issues with regard to driving, with different countries setting various ‘safe’ limits for blood-ethanol concentration. Very high blood-ethanol concentrations can be fatal.

  2. Hangovers are unpleasant and are poorly understood. Various mechanisms have been proposed including direct effects of ethanol o
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1.6.2 Treating alcohol-related liver disorders

Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of many other chronic medical conditions, scant progress has been made in the treatment of cirrhosis. In over 8000 people admitted to hospitals in the Oxford region of the UK with liver cirrhosis during a 30-year observation period, 34 per cent had died one year after their admission and this death rate remained more or less constant (Roberts et al., 2005).

The largely pessimistic view of the failure of treatment of liver dam
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7.7 References for Extract 6

Barclay, R. (1982) Social Workers: Their Role and Tasks, London, NISW, Bedford Square Press.

De Long, P. and Berg, I.K. (2001) ‘Co-constructing Cooperation with Mandated Clients’, Social Work, 46(4), pp. 361–74.

Department of Health (DoH) (1998) Modernising Social Services, London, HMSO.

Harris, R. (1997) ‘Power’ in Davies, M. (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Work, Oxford, Blackwell.

Hugman, R. (1991) Power in the Caring
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5.1 Children's rights

Initial information about the Palmer family

The story of the Palmer family is presented in the audio below, and it provides material about working with families. The case study is a dramatic presentation of a reconstituted family consisting of three generations living in the same household. During th
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3.10 References for Extract 2

Bean, P. and Melville, J. (1989) Lost Children of the Empire, London, Unwin Hyman.

Erikson, E. H. (1950) Childhood and Society, New York, Norton Books.

Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma, Harmondsworth, Penguin.

Goffman, E. (1968) Asylums, Harmondsworth, Pelican.

Hall, S. (1990) ‘Cultural identity and diaspora’ in Rutherford, J. (ed.) Identity, Community, Culture and Difference, Lawrence and Wishart, pp. 222–237.

Humphries, S. and
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3.8 Psychosocial theories of identity

This section does not discuss theories of identity in detail. It is important to note, however, that the theory associated with Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst who worked in the USA from the 1930s, has been very influential in social work and continues to be so. Erikson (1950) proposed eight stages of life, from infancy to old age, and each stage had its own particular task in the development of an individual's identity.

Erikson's theory is one of several and should not be regarded
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