3.1 The role of observation

It was clear to Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1924– ) that not only is children's behaviour shaped by its consequences, but also that children learn by watching the behaviour of people around them. In contrast to behaviourism, Bandura's social learning theory emphasised the importance of children imitating the behaviours, emotions and attitudes of those they saw around them:

Learning would be exceedingly
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1.3 The arrival of the Euro and the European Central Bank

The ECB (founded in 1998) is a formally independent body charged with defining and implementing monetary policy for the EU. It holds the reserves of the national banks of those participating in the Euro-zone, and also has responsibility for the Euro exchange rate (see Section 1.5). This i
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4.2 Moving towards greater equality in older age? Old Labour, pension reform and the continuity of a

The mid 1970s heralded a period in which the Labour Government introduced a series of reforms in the pension arena that potentially promised a more secure retirement for older, working-class people. Stripping away some of the patriarchal assumptions that had informed the Beveridgean settlement, the 1975 Social Security Pensions Act promised particular benefits for women and other low-paid workers. For example, the dual aspects of many women's lives – involving both unpaid and paid work –
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1.3 Psychology has social impact

The relevance of psychology to everyday concerns, and the ease with which it can be popularised and used, mean that psychological knowledge – some of it dubious, some of it accurate – is continually absorbed into culture and often incorporated into the very language we use. Examples of psychological concepts that have entered popular discourse include the notion that we are predisposed, both through evolution and through the functioning of our brains and nervous systems, to behave in cert
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Wynne - Guy the Gorilla DP183088

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Crystal Palace Park, Sydenham, Greater London. David Wynne sculpture 'Guy The Gorilla'. Photographed by Chris Redgrave in 2016.
© Historic England


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1.2.4 Theravada Buddhism

In all schools of Buddhism, the inevitability of death is seen as a fruitful topic for reflection and meditation, but in the Theravada tradition, which originated in Thailand, followers are especially encouraged to meditate upon death. In the beginning the meditator is asked to dwell on deaths of people who have led a pleasant life. Then the mind of the meditator can be turned to the inevitability of his or her own death, so as to develop ‘one-pointed’ concentration on this. To aid this a
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1.2.3 The effect of death on life

In some cultures, or groups within a culture, there is an attempt to integrate the fact of mortality into the centre of living so that members are actively encouraged to see death as normal and to face the fact that each of us will die. In others there is a tendency to combat or deny the fact of death, to the extent that life becomes an exercise in keeping thoughts of death at bay.

Yet it remains true that some ways of life and systems of belief do actively prepare people to acknowledge
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1.2.2 How do others find meaning in life?

There are those who share Tolstoy’s view that death is an end rather than a transition, and yet are much more optimistic about life. Hermann Bondi represents the views of many Humanists in the following passage:

As a Humanist I believe in the importance of human linkages, of human interactions, of our lives getting their meaning from our connections with each other. Thus I agree with Donne that anybody’s death
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • conduct searches efficiently and effectively

  • find references to material in bibliographic databases

  • make efficient use of full text electronic journals services

  • critically evaluate information from a variety of sources

  • understand the importance of organising information.


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Mitchell - Relief Mural DP172765

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Relief Mural (1967) by William Mitchell, County Hall, Saint Anne's Crescent, Lewes, East Sussex. Detail view showing the bronzed fibreglass. Photographed by Steven Baker 2014.
© Historic England


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Mitchell - Relief Mural DP172760

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Relief Mural (1967) by William Mitchell, County Hall, Saint Anne's Crescent, Lewes, East Sussex. General view from the north. Photographed by Steven Baker 2014.
© Historic England


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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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8.4 A Europe of the regions?

What role will the ‘regions’ play in the emerging governance structures of the European Union? This course examines the rise of the regions and regionalism in Western Europe. You will look at the possible development pathways for Europe: will it become a Federal super-state or a decentralised ‘Europe of the Regions’?

The course discusses the future of Europe, and it looks particularly closely at what may happen to the smaller political units presently existing below the level of
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2.2.1 Try some yourself

Activity 7

WGS.151 Gender, Health, and Society (MIT)
This course draws on different disciplines, conceptual frameworks, and methodological approaches to examine gender in relation to health, including public health practice, epidemiologic research, health policy, and clinical application. It discusses a variety of health-related issues that illustrate global, international, domestic, and historical perspectives, while considering other social determinants of health as well, including social class and race.
Author(s): Charlton, Brittany

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

How Women Are Changing the World
As social entrepreneurs, women are uniquely positioned to understand and address society’s unmet needs.
Author(s): Hans H. Wahl, Director INSEAD Social Entrepreneurs

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Automated Architecture: Why CAD, Parametrics and Fabrication are Really old News
Automation is transforming a significant number of industries today. This paper discusses how the Design and Construction industry is also entering into a new era of automation. In the paper I observe that designers are automating by using parametric tools (BIM, scripting, etc.) while contractors are moving into pre-fabrication and modularization. Both conceptualizations are incomplete. The paper presents how we are in the first steps of creating learning algorithms that develop specific intell
Author(s): Andia, Alfredo

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Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities
Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However,
Author(s): Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia and Maver, Tom

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Computer Visualisation as a Tool in Architectural Historical Research
The historical city has been represented over time using various ways of drawing, modelling and simulation. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualisation techniques are used in this presentation to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden and other towns. The resulting visualisation provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes. Th
Author(s): Alkhoven, P.

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