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U.S. Morning Call: Comments on "fiscal cliff" swing markets
Nov. 30 - U.S. stock futures are pointing to a slightly higher open as the President and Congressional Republicans tackle the "fiscal cliff."
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Nintendo's Wii U -- a Super Mario Success...or Game Over?
Nov. 30 - The loss-making Japanese game console maker needs a hit to lift its fortunes. Could the Wii U be it?
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Wealth Strategies: Bonds in for a decade of underperformance
Nov. 30 - Cabot Money Management's Robert Lutts says U.S. Treasuries are in for ten years or more of poor returns and instead likes emerging market debt and real assets like gold and capital equipment.
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3XSQ: Apple gets a boost from China
Nov 30 - Apple's iPhone 5, iPad Mini, and fourth-generation iPad will start selling in China after the company received regulatory approval to start selling the products there.
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IDS350 Session 12 Fall 2012
Gardens of California with Jerry Turney
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Meanings of the Election Results (Podcast)
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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1 Using vectors to model

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 1 MB).

1.2: Converting to geometric form

You have seen how any vector given in geometric form, in terms of magnitude and direction, can be written in component form. You will now see how conversion in the opposite sense may be achieved, starting from component form. In other words, given a vector a = a 1 i + a 2 j, what are its magnitude |a| and direction θ?

The first part of this question is dealt with using Pythagoras’ Theorem: the magnitude of a v
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1.3.6 Encyclopedias

Encyclopedias can be useful reference texts to use to start your research. There are some available online, such as Wikipedia, which is a freely available collaborative encyclopedia.


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1.3.5 Journals

Journals and articles written by academics or experts are an excellent source of information. Journals are usually published monthly or quarterly, and contain a selection of articles providing details of recent research. Often they will also contain reviews of relevant books. They are usually published more quickly than books, and so are often more up to date.

To access content of journals, most publishers require a subscription. There are, however, some journals which you can freely ac
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1.3.2 Search engines and subject gateways

Although both search engines and subject gateways will help you find the resources that you need, the types of information that you find will differ.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! search the internet for keywords or phrases, and then show you the results. These results are not mediated by the search engines, and therefore you need to use your own judgement on the reliability of the results. You may, for example, find websites written by experts, alongside websites written by
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References

Baggott, S. L., Cardenas, L., Garnett, E., Jackson, J., Mobbs, D. C., Murrells, T., Passant, N., Thomson, A. and Watterson, J. D. (2007) UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 to 2005, Harwell, Oxfordshire, AEA Technology.
Brower, M. and Leon, W. (1999) The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices, New York, Three Rivers Press.
Cabinet Office (2007) Po
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1.3.1 The vertical ‘structure’ of the atmosphere

The atmosphere is not a simple, uniform slab of absorbing material. On the contrary, it gets progressively ‘thinner’ or less dense with increasing altitude (height above mean sea level); i.e. the total number of molecules in a given volume of air is lower, and so is the pressure. About 80% of the total mass of the atmosphere is within some 10 km of the surface; 99.9% lies below 50 km.

The important corollary is that the key greenhouse gas molecules (H2O and CO
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1.2.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete with a domestic rival in another. The supply of manufactured goods across the globe as a result of worldwide demand, principally from the affluent economies, thus heightened competitio
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1.1.2 Activity 1

You have already glanced at Figure 1 and some of the worki
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6.6.2 The World Energy Council scenarios

What are the possibilities for radical changes in our energy systems when viewed from a world perspective? There have been numerous studies of the various future options for the world's energy systems. One of the most recent and most comprehensive was produced in 1998 by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC), a version of which was published in 2000 as part of the United Nations’ World Energy Assessment (United Nations Dev
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5.3 Emergency planning as a formal requirement

Several pieces of legislation make the preparation of emergency plans a statutory requirement. The European Directive on the control of major accident hazards (Council of the European Union, 1996a), the ‘Seveso II Directive’, outlines the planning requirements for industrial sites with large inventories of hazardous substances. In the UK, the requirements of this directive have been incorporated into the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (Health and Safety Executive, 1999a). I
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References

Blackmore, R. and Reddish, A. (eds.) (1996) Global Environmental Issues, Hodder & Stoughton in association with the Open University.
Blowers, A. (ed.) (1993) Planning for a Sustainable Environment, A report by the Town and Country Planning Association, London: Earthscan.
Brezet, J.C. and Van Hemel, C. (eds) (1997) Ecodesign, a promising approach to sustainable produc
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4.2 The US experience: wasteful innovation?

In the 1950s and 1960s many industrialised countries experienced a prolonged period of economic expansion which, together with the rise of consumerism, created an increased demand for domestic appliances. With ready access to cheap supplies of fuel, there was little or no incentive for manufacturers or consumers to worry about energy conservation. Nowhere was this more evident than in the US, as the following extract from the influential book Factor Four of the design developments in d
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