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Learning outcomes

At the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • identify the main features of a project;

  • explain the importance of the key dimensions of budget, time and quality;

  • identify the links between a project's scope and definition and a sponsor's strategic and operational objectives;

  • agree the objectives of the project in sufficient detail to enable it to be planned effectively;

  • assess the feasibility of a project and to negotia
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2 What's so great about innovation?

So far we have suggested that innovation is a positive concept and, it appears, the rate of innovation continues to accelerate, led mostly by technology. The process is an example of positive feedback, in which the change is self-reinforcing: the development of technology itself increases the capacity for technological innovation, and raises the expectation of consumers for further innovation. While there seems little reason why this process of accelerating technological change should
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2.1 Introduction

'All experiences count and are valuable and no one should push those aside. It really doesn't matter where that experience was gained. It's about what you learnt from it… don't devalue yourself. Recognise the importance of what you've done.'

Ruth Stokes, KPMG on the vol
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1.5.1 The co-production of meaning

The third sense in which discourse is a social action refers to the origins of meanings. Meaning emerges from complex social and historical processes. It is conventional and normative. We have some idea what it signifies to say Prince Charles is a proud man because we are members of a speaking community and culture which has agreed associations for ‘proud man’. We draw on those to make sense. Meaning is also relational. Proud signifies as it does because of the existence of other t
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify some key themes in discourse analysis;

  • appreciate the consequences of discourse research for some key topics in social science, such as indentity, interaction and subjectivity;

  • be familiar with some discourse analytical techniques and their consequences for analysing social interactions.


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1.4.1 Nature of the pact

With the advent of EMU and the Euro the question of the SGP embodied in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997 was raised once again (Linter, 2001, p. 68). This pact is designed to ensure that EU member states’ fiscal policies (involving government taxation and expenditure decisions) do not clash with their monetary policies (or, in the case of the Euro-zone countries, with the monetary policy pursued by the ECB). As we have seen, by and large, the monetary policy pursued by the ECB is
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7 Citizenship as ‘participation in social life’

If ‘citizenship, as social practice, is manifested by direct or indirect participation in public life, by both individuals and groups’ (Kastoryano, 2002, p. 143), then opportunities for asylum seekers and refugees to participate is crucial. Young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Milton Keynes (not one of the government's ‘cluster areas’) were very clear about what participation meant for them: ‘secure housing, full-time education, special language training, friends and community s
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4.1 The context and significance of the historical moments under consideration

The two historical moments we are considering were not chosen arbitrarily; they are both significant times in the overall history of people seeking asylum in the UK. Some important relationships between them give us a starting point for looking at continuities and discontinuities in both policy and experience.

Firstly, Lotte and Wolja were admitted to the UK under the 1905 Aliens Act. This was the first fully implemented legal attempt to control the entry of ‘foreigners’ into the UK
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Introduction

This unit serves as a gateway to over 30 units that have been specifically developed to reflect the enormous interest in Scottish culture and society. The collection of units as a whole demonstrates The Open University's commitment to delivering a curriculum that is appropriate for the differing requirements of each of the countries within the United Kingdom.

These units have been collected and developed from across The Open University's catalogue, chosen because of their particular rel
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3.1 ‘Making ends meet’

When you say that someone is ‘poor’, what do you mean?

Do people whom others call ‘poor’ always see themselves in that way?

One group whose identities are greatly constrained by income are the poor. But, as the questions above suggest, poverty is not a simple fact of some lives: rather, it is a concept with different meanings, and a label that we may accept or reject. This section c
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References

Balibar, E. (2007) ‘Uprisings in the Banlieues’, Constellations, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 47–71.
Bradshaw, L. and Slonsky, L.B. (2005) ‘The real heroes and sheroes of New Orleans’, Socialist Worker (US, 9 September; also available online at http://www.socialistworker.org  (Accessed 5 Ju
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3.3 Bringing it all back home: the ‘problem estate’

It would be mistaken to deduce from the discussion thus far that problem populations and problem places only occur elsewhere. The focus of this section is to consider how such understandings also emerge in the UK. Our case study here is formed around a specific type of place which in recent decades has increasingly come to be perceived as a ‘problem’ – the deprived council estate.

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3.1 The idea of problematic places

Katrina offers us a rich case study through which we have begun to explore some of the concerns surroundng problem places or populations. In reflecting on the controversies that emerged in the aftermath of Katrina, we can see that for some commentators it was a ‘problem place’ long before the hurricane struck in 2005. The idea that different places can be seen as problematic is a recurring theme that emerges in the context of ongoing debates around poverty and inequality, and the relation
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References

Bernardes, J. (1987) ‘“Doing things with words”: Sociology and “Family Policy” debates’, Sociological Review, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 679–702.
Bernardes, J. (1993) ‘Responsibilities in studying postmodern families’, Journal of Family Therapy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 35–49.
Bernardes, J. (2003[1985]) ‘Do we really know what “the family” is?’
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1.1 Why look at photographs?

Age Concern poster: age and identity
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Visual Images in Social Sciences

How do social scientists use visual images?

What does a picture or image tell you? This unit is an introduction to analysing and interpreting photographs as social data. Who controls what the image is saying? You will look at how photographs provide visual evidence and how they can illustrate and support our ideas about society.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Introducing the social sciences (DD100) which is no longer taught by The
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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Cartoon: "We all want to crack down on crime" David Austin

Figure 1: Croall, H. (1998) Crime and Society in Britain, Addison Wesley Longman Ltd;
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5.2.1 Beyond the UK

We have focused on crime in one society, in one period – the late twentieth-century UK. But crime is also becoming increasingly globalised. This is not simply to say that crime occurs throughout the world, which it certainly does. It is to highlight ways through which crime is becoming organised across borders.

One example would be cross-border criminal gangs. The American-Italian Mafia is now in global competition with Eastern European and Russian Mafias who are in turn up against Ch
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • identify the value and best way of note taking.


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