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3.1 Introduction

In this section we look at the way in which the personal lives of older people have been socially constructed through pensions policies over the last century. As we saw above, welfare policies and changes in employment in the latter part of the nineteenth century and early part of the twentieth century constructed the personal lives of older people as ‘other’ to the emergent normal of relatively younger, ‘independent’ paid workers. Here, we explore the way pensions policies during the
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3.3 Parenthood

The deeply embedded inequalities of marriage were also prevalent in parenthood, reflecting the key role of gender in structuring the inequalities found in both. Under common law fathers were given complete control over their children, while mothers had no rights of custody, care or access if the marriage broke down, or even if the husband died. A man could be adulterous or fail to provide for his family without depriving him of his rights. The Poor Laws provided the only legal requirement on
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2.2 Market demand and price

This subsection will explore the widely observed relationship between the quantity demanded of a good by consumers and the price of the good: the lower the price, the greater the quantity demanded. This relationship underlies the way in which falling prices are responsible for the rapid take-up of new products by consumers, as reported in the quotations above. We focus on the market demand curve, which represents the demand of all the consumers in a given market. However, as well as the price
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2.1 Industry and markets: what do we mean?

Case study: Digital outsells film

Sales of digital cameras have overtaken traditional 35 mm cameras for the first time. According to monthly figures collated by national electric and photo retailer Dixons, digital camera sales out
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References

Abernathy, W.J., Clark, K. and Kantrow, A. (1983) Industrial Renaissance: Producing a Competitive Future for America, Basic Books, New York.
Berndt, E.R. and Rappaport, N. (2000) ‘Price and quality of desktop and mobile personal computers: a quarter century of history’, paper presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research’s Summer Institute 2000 session on ‘Price, Output and Productivity Measure
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5 Conclusion

This chapter has enabled you to think about the essential role of technological change in determining economy-wide growth and the growth of firms and industries. We have seen that many issues surrounding the new economy are really issues around the dynamics of technological change: rapid increases in productivity, the emergence of many small firms, new products and new processes, and so on. The main lesson of the unit has been to provide a historical perspective to the introduction of new tec
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Introduction

This unit takes one aspect of the debate concerning the new economy – innovation in the form of the introduction of information and communication technologies – and places it in the historical context of industrial revolutions. Is the new economy really new or ‘just another’ industrial revolution?

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Economics and economic change (
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate the politics of racial violence.


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Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • define social construction and social constructionism.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D218: Social policy: welfare, power and diversity, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • identify the value and best way of note taking.


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1.3.8 News sources

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

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1.3.4 Databases

At a basic level, a database is a collection of information which can be searched. It is a way of storing, indexing, organising and retrieving information. You may have created one yourself to keep track of your references – or your friends' names and addresses. They are useful for finding articles on a topic, and can be used to search for many different types of information.

You may find some of the following databases useful for your topic. They contain different types of informatio
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1.3.1 Introduction

You can find a lot of information about society on the internet.

To find this information you might choose to use:

  • internet resources;

  • search engines and subject gateways;

  • books and electronic books;

  • databases;

  • journals;

  • encyclopedias.


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1 Poverty in Scotland

Poverty in Scotland 2011 provides a detailed overview of poverty and anti-poverty policies in Scotland. It provides a comprehensive account of the state of poverty in Scotland, highlighting the main trends and the impact poverty has on people and places.

This unit comprises a PDF document produced originally by Child Poverty Action Group, in association with Glasgow Caledonian University, The Open University and Poverty Alliance.

Poverty in Scotland, (250 pages, 789 KB)


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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to use the following photographs in this unit:

Figure 2 Riveter based on the cover of the exhibition catalogue for ‘Clydebuilt: The River, its Ships and its People’, organised by the Clyde Maritime Trust Ltd.;

Figure 3 Glasgow Herald/Caledonian Newspapers Limited;

Figure 4 Mr Happy adaptation: Mr Men and Little Miss™ and © 1995 Mrs Roger Hargreaves; (all) Courtesy: City of Glasgow;

Figu
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2.3 Watching the programme

Activity 1: Watching the programme

There are two main themes to consider as you watch the programme:

  • (a) Image and identity

    • Note down examples o
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2.2 Postscript

A headline-grabbing weekend of ‘midsummer madness’, when six murders occurred in (parts of) Glasgow over the weekend of 5–6 August 1995, reinforced the ongoing nature of contestation and debate about the issues discussed in the programme. As noted in The Scotsman (8 August 1995), the legacy of the imagery of No Mean City was quickly resurrected by the press – for example, ‘a darker side to that much-vaunted transformation of Glasgow from No Mean City to Culture City’
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2.1 How the programme progresses

The programme takes the form of a visit to Glasgow. We talked to people and asked about their image(s) of Glasgow and whether these had changed – what was the ‘old’ image; what is the ‘new’; how has it changed; what will it be like in another ten years?

The five main participants have different experiences of Glasgow and these are represented in the images which they hold and aspects of the city's character which they highlight. The themes and ideas behind the programme are al
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