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3.5 Establishing Ethernet standards

The first Ethernet network was developed in the early 1970s, long before the days of the World Wide Web and personal computers (PCs). It was designed by researchers at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre in California, USA to connect the Centre's ‘Alto’ computers to an office printer.

Ethernet's journey from its modest roots to become the dominant network technology is a fascinating one. One of the main reasons for its success lies with the decision to publish the standard. Standard
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5.4 Conclusion

You have seen that although the three products you have looked at are very different types of computer, they all embody the same basic functionality and a version of Figure 3 can be drawn for each product to illustrate this.

One feature of the PC is the range of forms of secondary memory it can use, and
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5.3 Digital camera

The last computer I am going to look at is the embedded computer in a digital camera.

Figure 10 shows a picture of a digital camera. The screen of the camera is displaying a picture that has previously been stored in a memory card within the camera. This memory card is not the camera computer's main memory, nor is it the secondary memory used to hold the computer's program; it is a form of removable secondary memory where the computer stores the images taken. Next to the camera in Figur
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6.3 Describing use cases

To understand the work, you need a good idea of what each use case means. To get a feel for what this might entail, look again at Figure 3 (reproduced below) which shows a simple use case model for a hotel chain reservation system. Note that Figure 3 is not intended to be an exhaustive model of the hotel domain; the scope of the problem to be solved is confined to reservations and the processes of checking in and out.


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2.1 What is modelling?

Modelling is about building representations of things in the ‘real world’ and allowing ideas to be investigated; it is central to all activities in the process for building or creating an artefact of some form or other. In effect, a model is a way of expressing a particular view of an identifiable system of some kind. Models are:

  • a means of understanding the problems involved in building something;

  • an aid to communicati
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7.2.7 Collaboration platforms

Companies whose internet offerings can be described by this business model provide sites which enable companies to collaborate with each other, usually when the companies are spread over large distances. For example, a company which runs a collaboration platform might provide facilities for companies who wish to come together in order to tender for a complex project in a particular market sector such as aerospace.


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8.5 Reviewing

Undoubtedly this is the most difficult phase to apply to revision and an exam or to the preparation and production of an end-of-course assessment. Most of us heave a huge sigh of relief when it is all over and then try to put it out of our minds during the weeks while we wait for the results. When these arrive, it is very difficult to think back to the exam itself or revisit the details of the end-of-course assessment. With very little feedback to help, learning how to learn from exams or the
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3.3.2 What problems might you have with this?

One way to think about the problems you might have with using academic theory on Learning to change is to think about the difference between getting personal feedback and using academic ideas. Academic theory about learning is unlikely to have considered your particular experiences or the story of your life. This may mean that some parts of theory may not seem to apply to you. Often theory is found written down in books or journal articles which are read by other academics; they
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Learning outcomes

Having studied this unit you should be able to:

  • develop a strategy for using skills in Working with others over an extended period of time;

  • monitor your progress and adapt your strategy as necessary, to achieve the quality of outcomes required when working with others;

  • evaluate your overall strategy and present the outcomes from your work using a variety of methods.


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6.3 Referencing

Once you start using the web for study and research, you'll see how convenient it is to find information that you can use for course notes, essays or reports.

One of the most important of all your study skills is the ability to summarise information from other sources in your own words.

Whenever you make use of any information that has been created by someone else, the author and the source must be clearly identified and acknowledged through the use of proper referencing. Providin
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4.9 When there's too much to do

This can be a real problem in large conferences. If, for whatever reason, you join a conference later than the other participants, or are unable to be involved for a while, the prospect of joining in can be a bit daunting. There will be lots of messages you haven't read and you may feel that everyone else knows each other.

The main thing to remember is that everyone will be pleased to ‘see’ you when you do join in, and will be helpful and supportive. Here are some strategies you can
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4.5 An overview of problems and solutions

You may come up against problems in online conferences that cause you frustration or annoyance, and make you less likely to participate. In the following subsections we discuss ways to handle the challenges of:

  • not knowing what to say;

  • feeling you are saying too much;

  • not everyone participating;

  • there being too much to do;

  • nobody saying anything.


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3.3 Real time chat

Online chat is a means of having a quick written conversation with one or more people who are online at the same time. Compared with email, there's less of a time lag in waiting for a response. Messages are likely to be more spontaneous, and it can be anarchic when several people reply at once.


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2.3 Learning more

Consider your main use for the PC, and check that you have the skills or knowledge you need. Although some students use spreadsheets and databases, the key skills for most students are:

  • word processing study notes and assignments;

  • searching for information on the web;

  • using conferencing and email.

If you feel you need to know more about using your computer there are a number of options open to you.
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1.1 Ways in which computers can help you to study

Courses use computers for a variety of different reasons. These are a few examples.

  • To let you explore ideas and concepts in more depth, such as by using a multimedia CD-ROM or DVD with interactive exercises.

  • To help you communicate with others on your course. Online conferences offer a way to contact other students and staff for information, discussion and mutual support.

  • To allow you to analyse data, see pictures or
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5.1.4 History

There is no general dictionary or companion to the study of history as such. However, there are period and subject-specific companions and indexes, such as:

Jones, C. (1990) The Longman Companion to the French Revolution, London, Longman.

Consult those appropriate to your course.


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3.7.1 Technical considerations

Handwriting

Nowadays most people use a word processing package to write essays while some people may use a typewriter. However, if you don't have access to either of these you will need to hand-write your essay. Should this be the case, the ease of reading depends on the quality of your handwriting . It is only fair to your tutor to try to make your writing as legible as possible. This will take time and care. But when you have spent a long time putting an essay togeth
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2.6.2 Hansa's essay

Hansa's essay would get a higher grade than Philip's. But, like his, it has both strong and weak points.

Strengths

  • subtle understanding of Ellis's argument

  • excellent focus on the question in the title

  • generally sound structure

  • some very fluent writing in places

  • plenty of attack in the opening – pacey first paragraph

  • good sense of how to draw a conclus
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2.5.6 Essay presentation

Both Philip and Hansa presented their essays neatly, with no crossings out or obvious slips of the pen or type. And they make very few spelling mistakes. Philip puts ‘wifes’ for wives, ‘citys’ for cities and ‘carreer’ for career, and Hansa ‘sparcity’ for sparsity.

Spelling

People of
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2.5.5 Writing style

As we have seen, Hansa tends to use whole clusters of words and constructions that are a bit over-formal rather than wrong. She seems to be trying to impress her reader. For example:

They therefore fled from the country in order to escape the restrictions and consequent boredom placed upon them by the very limited pastimes that a high ranking women in the eighteenth century was permitted to indulge.


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