Toward Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative, Web-Based Environment
A potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. While problem-solving data has been used in the past to guide the development of tutors, such data has not been used as a means to directly construct an initial tutoring system model. We propose an approach called bootstrapping novice data (BND) in which a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration
Towards a Pattern Language for Intelligent Teaching and Training Systems
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are usually based on similar fundamental structures. In contrast to this, software engineering techniques are seldomly used for realizing ITSs. In the last years, some approaches tried to change this: pattern mining took place; methods covering the specifics of ITS project development have been deployed. These approaches usually focus on a specific system type or on a certain application domain. What is missing is a combination of all the different approaches
Analysis Methods for Collaborative Models and Activities
A classification of analysis methods for CSCL systems is presented which uses as one dimension the distinction into summary analysis and structural analysis and as another distinction different types of raw data: either user actions or state descriptions. The Cool Modes environment for collaborative modeling enables us to explore the whole spectrum of analysis methods. Action logging is based on the MatchMaker communication server underlying Cool Modes. Example instances for several analysis met
The Remote Control Approach An Architecture for Tutoring in Pre-existing Collaborative Applicatio
In this paper we present an architecture for the integration of tutoring and process scaffolds into existing collaborative applications. The architecture allows to combine existing research results concerning collaborative processes and their formalization, and existing and tested collaborative learning environments. The architecture allows controlling the learning environments either by a human or a pedagogic agent. Both types of tutors are using the same set of primitives either via an intu
Processing and Transforming Collaborative Learning Protocols for Learner's Reflection and Tutor's Ev
This paper discusses the potential of processing and analysis of collaborative learning protocols, which in the first place are represented as low-level logfiles of actions in collaborative learning environments. These protocols can be abstracted, analysed, and augmented to provide the users with feedback about the collaboration process. We present several techniques we implemented which may be combined to support learner s self-reflection as well as tutors in evaluating the process.
Building and Maintaining the Common Ground in Web-Based Interaction
In this paper, the main purpose is to explore how participants establish and maintain the common ground in the computer-based conferences. Previous studies assume that before the participants can reach the deeper level interaction and learning, they have to gain an adequate level of common ground (Dillenbourg, 1999; Baker et al., 1999; Veerman, 2000). Subjects were 68 pre-service teachers and 7 mentors from three universities who participated in the web-based conferencing course for eight weeks.
Cooperation scripts for learning via web-based discussion boards and videoconferencing
Computer-supported collaborative learning often means that locally distant learners discuss a task via text-based discussion boards or videoconferencing. Collaborative learning, however, is often suboptimal with respect to how learners work on the concepts that are supposed to be learned and how learners interact with each other. Collaborative learning environments may be improved by scripts that structure epistemic activities and social interactions of learners. Two studies are being reported t
Intelligent CALL: The magnitude of the task
The quality of most CALL programs is not well balanced with respect to the use of computer technology and of language content and processing. This imbalance can be explained by a number of constraints pulling CALL developers in diverging directions. For commercial CALLware the poor learner fit and lack of feedback is a serious impediment. So far ICALL approaches trying to overcome this have not been of a sufficiently high quality due to the vast distance between most learner language and the tex
Learning Bridges: a role for mobile technologies in education
A project called MyArtSpace, funded by the UK Department for Culture Media and Sport, is today exploring how children can engage in similar enquiry-led learning supported by mobile technology and how this can link to school and home learning. Using MyArtSpace as an example, we discuss the possibilities for mobile technology to form bridges between formal and informal learning. We also offer guidelines, drawn from our experience with MyArtSpace, for designing such bridges.
Anchored Interactive Learning Environments
Advances in computer technology and multi-media systems have led to widespread interest in computer-based instruction and learning environments. The use of video, animation, graphics, and simulation allow the presentation of material in realistic contexts, thus addressing the problems of inert knowledge while promoting constructive and generative learning. But the true potential and benefits of these systems are yet to be realized. Cognitive studies on learning and transfer suggest that concepts
Implementation of a computer algebra based assessment system
This article describes the design and implementation of the CABLE computer aided assessment system. Introducing a computer algebra system (CAS) to assist in marking allows instructors to design effective assessment schemes that are valid and reliable. A modular design approach allows system components, including a virtual learning environment (VLE), CAS and database, to be used for their respective strengths. Requirements for both interoperability and customisation for particular learning contex
Cognitive processes in solving variants of computer-based problems used in logic teaching
The effect of two instructional variables, visualisation and manipulation of objects, in learning to use the logical connective, conditional, was investigated. Instructions for 66 first-year social science students were varied in the computer-based learning environment Tarski's World, designed for teaching first-order logic (Barwise & Etchemendy, 1992. The language of first-order logic: including the Microsoft Windows program Tarski's World 4.0 for use with IBM-compatible computers. Stanford, CA
When less is sometimes more: Optimal learning conditions are required for schema acquisition from mu
While it is usually claimed that multiple examples for the illustration of problem categories are a necessary prerequisite for schema acquisition, there is a lack of conclusive empirical evidence supporting this claim. Moreover, there are findings indicating that carefully designed one-example conditions may allow for profitable processes of example comparison as well. In line with this reasoning, we present an experiment that builds up on a series of studies conducted by Quilici and Mayer (1
Cognitive tools for discovery learning
Cognitive tools, defined here as instruments that support or perform cognitive processes for learners in order to support learning, can bridge the difference between open learning environments, like discovery learning environments and traditional supportive instructional environments. This article discusses a definition of the concept of cognitive tool and its use in learning. Two examples of cognitive tools for discovery environments are presented, and it is made clear how these tools can serve
Towards Web 2.0 Schools: Rethinking the Teachers Professional Development
This paper aims at analyzing the Web 2.0 based distance education in the K-12 schools as an emerging phenomenon that catalyzes a new educational reform all over the world. Some pre-Web 2.0 best practice examples are analyzed in order to draw the main findings in the paper. The teachers professional qualification designed to meet the new challenges is considered as a key problem for a successful penetration of this phenomenon in the schools. It is emphasized on the importance of designing a lif
Challenges of implementing CSCL designs in the Greek classrooms
not available,Paper presented at the 10th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), 2003, Padova, Italy.
Computer support for collaborative learning: foundations for a CSCL community
Proceedings of CSCL 2002 Boulder, Colorado, USA January 7-11, 2002
A Framework for Assessing Self, Peer and Group Performance in e-Learning
In this chapter we propose a framework that supports the analysis and assessment of collaborative learning of online groups of students working on a complex task (software project, or case study) in a real web-based, distance learning context. On the one hand, our approach is based on principled evaluation criteria that involve and measure a variety of elements and factors as well as on a combination of a basic qualitative process and a quantitative method that provide a grounded and holistic fr
Enabling Efficient Real Time User Modeling in On-line Campus
User modelling in on-line distance learning is an important research field focusing on two important aspects: describing and predicting students actions and intentions as well as adapting the learning process to students features, habits, interests, preferences, and so on. The aim is to greatly stimulate and improve the learning experience. In this context, user modeling implies a constant processing and analysis of user interaction data during long-term learning activities, which produces l
Collaboration Activity Function: An interaction analysis tool for Computer Supported Collaborative
During the last years, an increased interest has been observed on tools analyzing collaborative interactions that could be useful for researchers, teachers, or even students. The paper presents such a tool, based on the formally defined collaborative activity function (CAF). The empirical evaluation of CAF is also presented. The evaluation is focused on teachers using CAF during and after sessions of synchronous collaborative problem solving among students.