1 Introduction to the course

Scientists are increasingly being asked to discuss and communicate social and ethical issues that arise from their work. Understanding these issues is also part of developing science and technology responsibly. And yet the formal education system in the UK often requires scientists to focus on core science subjects at the expense of learning about the social and ethical implications of their work. How then does a modern scientist begin to engage with these important issues? One solution is to
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6.1 Basic isotropy

As we have said, the photons in the 3 K background have been practically free from interaction with anything since about 4 × 105 years after the instant of the big bang. The present angular distribution of the microwave radiation – the way in which it is spread across the sky – is therefore almost the same as it was then. The spectrum we find today depends on the temperatures at that time – for the intensity of the radiation in a particular region of the early Unive
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Introduction

This unit will help you to identify and use information in Science and Nature, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of orga
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7.4.1 Uses of models not made explicit

  • recognise that many scientific findings follow from the use of theoretical models in addition to consideration of empirical data;

  • be aware that numerical values provided by scientists may be derived directly from data, or from the application of theoretical models to a data set.


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Introduction

Sweatshops and the exploitation of workers are often linked to the globalised production of ‘big brand’ labels. This unit examines how campaigners have successfully closed the distance between the brands and the sweatshops, while others argue that such production ‘kick starts’ economies into growth benefiting whole communities.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Author(s): The Open University

5.5 Summary of Section 5

  • The phase of a material is characterised by its physical state (e.g. solid, liquid or gas), a distinctive arrangement of the atoms, and its chemical composition.

  • Material properties can change suddenly as the temperature increases or decreases, corresponding to changes of phase and the degree of order associated with the arrangement of atoms.

  • Shape memory alloys are examples of a wide range of useful engineering materials t
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4.2 Energy distribution

Atoms without much thermal energy will not be doing very much. Consider fifty million million million (50 × 1018) silicon atoms, bonded into a single massive network; I've chosen silicon, but any elemental solid would do. It will be a speck just large enough to be seen without a microscope. You know that if it is heated it will expand, at some stage it will melt and then eventually it will vaporise – that is because thermal energy effectively ‘rattles it to bits’. Having the
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2.3 How things change with temperature

The temperature-dependent effects used in most thermometers have a fairly steady change over a good range of temperature (Figure 3a). By contrast, phase changes, of which melting and boiling are the common examples, happen at sharply critical temperatures (Author(s): The Open University

3.2.5 Group development

Next on the list of priorities in the functioning of groups is the process of group development. One popular conception of the way in which groups ‘gel’ and become effective was first suggested by Tuckman (1965) and then extended by Tuckman and Jensen (1977). Tuckman originally identified four stages in this development process, which he named ‘forming’, ‘storming’, ‘norming’ and ‘performing’. These stages (see Author(s): The Open University

3.1 Belonging to a group

Because work groups are of central significance in the functioning of an organisation they have been studied intensively, and much has been written about group processes. In this reading it would be inappropriate to attempt to review this vast literature, which covers an enormous range of topics and aspects of groups. Instead, I focus attention here on two particular aspects of groups. First, I examine the nature of the contracts within a group: what it is that people gain from belonging to a
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References

Checkland, P. (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, Chichester, Wiley.

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Crossing the boundary - analogue universe, digital worlds
How does the computer's peculiar binary world of digital entities differ from our analogue world of colour, sound, taste and touch? This unit explores the way in which information, in the form of text, still and moving images, and sound can cross the boundary from the analogue universe into a digital world. First publishe
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

18.2 Using e-commerce

Many people now have internet connections and this offers many benefits to both businesses and their customers.

From a customer's point of view, e-commerce has a number of advantages. Shopping can be done from home; you can probably find what you need without trudging from one shop to another and waiting in queues. You can also purchase goods 24 hours a day, every day.

From the point of view of a business, e-commerce also offers a number of advantages. There is a potentially wide
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17.2 The checkout terminal

The first computer block represents the checkout terminal. The processes at the checkout (receiving, storing, retrieving, manipulating and sending data to the user), are the same as I described earlier. However, the checkout terminal also sends data via the supermarket's network.


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Learning outcomes

This is what you should have achieved when you have completed your study of this unit:

  • have a general knowledge of the different types of storage media for digital data;

  • understand the basic concepts of electrical voltage and resistance, and the parameters used to specify batteries;

  • have an overview of the historical development of ICT in video recording, newsgathering and new dissemination;

  • compare the merits of different media as s
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5.2.1 Discrete variables

The charts about different modes of transport and that on attendance figures at a range of cultural events all use what might be called ‘word categories’. Each category (e.g. bus, rail, cycle, and walk) is quite distinct from any other in the set of categories. Such distinct categories are known in mathematics as ‘discrete variables’.

Word categories are not the only type of variable that is discrete; numbers can also be discrete. For example, at the beginning of this section, w
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5.3 Objectivity and subjectivity, induction and deduction

The purposes of scientific enquiry are to describe, explain, predict and control (Reaves, 1992). Through scientific training, natural curiosity is developed into objective, empirical (experience-based) study involving observations and controlled experiments which constitute the methods of scientific enquiry that lead to scientific knowledge.


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2.2 Users' experiences of the therapeutic relationship

CAM users may seek a very different type of therapeutic relationship from those they experience with orthodox practitioners. Some people may want to spend more time with a CAM practitioner than they do with their GP, to have more say in determining the frequency of access to practitioners, to have more control over what happens in the consultation room, and to have more choice about the treatments they are given.

In any therapeutic encounter, people want to be treated with respect, to b
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1.5.4 The 5 Ds

If you don’t use a system at all, then you could suffer from the effects of information overload:

  • losing important information

  • wasting time on trying to find things

  • ending up with piles of physical and virtual stuff everywhere

One technique you might like to apply to your files (be they paper or electronic) is the 5Ds. Try applying these and see if you can reduce your information overload.


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Cardio Kickboxing Stretches
Stretching is essential before starting a cardio kickboxing workout to prevent injury. Stretch with tips from a kickboxing instructor. Easy to follow along with.  3:21 min.
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