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A Grid Services Implementation for a Virtual Research Environment
In the past, virtual learning and research environments have typically been implemented as monolithic systems. Current research focuses on creating such environments from selected Grid and Web services. In this paper we describe the Virtual Orthopaedic European University, which was created to support Higher Surgical Trainees to provide evidence for their learning contracts by carrying out experiments and publishing the results. We use this environment as a case study for the re-implementation
Author(s): Wills Gary,Gilbert Lester,Gee Quintin,Davis Hugh C

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edCity - a New Learning Environment
edCity will facilitate learning anywhere, anytime, for anyone - for users of all ages both in traditionally taught and in pedagogically innovative courses - by fusing physical and virtual representations of real cities in order to provide a new learning framework. The edCity project will be scenario-driven with major conceptual inputs to the design generated by highly interactive scenario-building activities. After 18 months, a "Semantic Web" framework will be published and a prototype of the
Author(s): Fraser Ken,Schostak John

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Creatures of Habit: A Computational System to Enhance and Illuminate the Development of Scientific T
Creatures of Habit is a computer-based microworld designed to engage middle-to-high school students in the process of scientific inquiry. The system depicts a universe of interacting programmable “creatures” whose individual behavior is guided by simple rules that may model naive psychology, physical laws, chemical affinities, and other domains. Students can create or revise creature rules and explore the resulting (and often surprising) emergent behaviors within “artificial ecosystems”;
Author(s): Pea Roy D.,Eisenberg Michael,Turbak Franklyn

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Technology and pedagogy for collaborative problem solving as a context for learning
This workshop, sponsored jointly by CSCW'92 and the Centre for Applied Cognitive Science at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), was organized to bring together researchers with interests in the emerging area of Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL). It was held at OISE on the weekend preceding CSCW'92 and was attended by 27 participants from academia and industry.
Author(s): Koschmann Timothy,Newman Denis,Woodruff Earl,Pea R

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Children's mental models of recursive logo programs
Children who had a year of Logo programming experience were asked to think-aloud about what brief Logo recursive programs will do, and then to predict with a hand-simulation of the programs what the Logo graphics turtle will draw when the program is executed. If discrepancies arose in this last phase, children were asked to explain them. A prevaient but misguided "looping" interpretation of Logo recursion was identified, and this robust mental model persisted even in the face of contradiction be
Author(s): Kurland D. Midian,Pea Roy D.

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Beyond Amplification: Using the Computer to Reorganize Mental Functioning
Computers are classically viewed as amplifiers of cognition. An alternative conceptualization is offered of computer as reorganizer of mental functioning. Software analyses illuminate the advantages of the latter approach for new visions of the potential cognitive benefits of computers. A new result emerges: Because the cognitive technologies we invent serve as instruments of cultural redefinition (shaping who we are by changing, not just amplifying, what we do), defining educational values beco
Author(s): Pea Roy D.

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Integrating Human and Computer Intelligence
The thesis to be explored in this chapter is that advances in computer applications and artificial intelligence have important implications for the study of development and learning in psychology. I begin by reviewing current approaches to the use of computers as devices for solving problems. reasoning, and thinking. I then raise questions concerning the integration of computer-based intelligence with human intelligence to seme human development and the processes of education.
Author(s): Pea Roy D.

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On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming
This paper critically examines current thinking about whether learning computer programming promotes the development of general higher mental functions. We show how the available evidence, and the underlying assumptions about the process of learning to program, fail to address this issue adequately. Our analysis is based on a developmental cognitive science perspective on learning program, incorporating developmental and cognitive science considerations of the mental activities involved in progr
Author(s): Pea Roy D.,Kurland D. Midian

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On the Cognitive Prerequisites of Learning Computer Programming
Training in computer literacy of some form, much of which will consist of training in computer programming, is likely to involve $3 billion of the $14 billion to be spent on personal computers by 1986 (Harmon, 1983). Who will do the training? "hardware and software manufacturers, management consultants, -retailers, independent computer instruction centers, corporations' in-house training programs, public and private schools and universities, and a variety of consultants1' (-ibid. , p. 27). To da
Author(s): Pea Roy D.,Kurland D. Midian

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Introducing E-Learning in a Norwegian Service Company with Participatory Design and Evolutionary Pro
Over a 2-year period, we have participated in the introduction of e-learning in a Norwegian service company, a gas station division of an oil company. This company has an advanced computer network infrastructure for communication and information sharing, but the primary task of the employees is serving customers. We identify some challenges to introducing e-learning in this kind of environment. A primary emphasis has been on using participatory design techniques during the planning stages and ev
Author(s): Mørch Anders,Engen Bård Ketil,Hansen Åsand Hege

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The Collaborative Visualization Project
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Author(s): Pea Roy D.

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Supporting Conceptual Awareness with Pedagogical Agents
This paper describes a series of efforts in building and conceptualizing software agents for distributed collaborative learning. The agents are referred to as pedagogical agents. We have integrated pedagogical agents within two collaborative environments, TeamWave Workplace and Future Learning Environment. The role of agents in these environments differs from past work on software agents in their function as extended awareness mechanisms, focusing on task and concept awareness (conceptual a
Author(s): Mørch Anders,Jondahl Silje,Dolonen Jan A.

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Understanding the task: How is agency distributed between tools, students and teachers in technology
In this paper we explore how students’ agency relates to openness and structure within technology-rich, student-centred learning environments. This is done by analysing how students’ understandings of tasks evolve through their activities in relation to the representations in the learning environments. In our interpretation of the sociocultural approach, we emphasise human activity as mediated by artefacts, where the output of the activity has to be understood by including human action and a
Author(s): Rasmussen Ingvill,Krange Ingeborg,Ludvigsen Sten

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Informatics-based Learning Resources for Patients and their Relatives in recovery
In this paper we describe experiences from design of an informatics-based learning resource for patients and relatives. The prototype, REPARERE (learning REsource for PAtients and RElatives during REcovery), aims to support patients and their family recovering from heart surgery in meeting challenges in to daily living post discharge. Using recovery experiences and patient teaching material, REPARERE includes examples of textual information, video-clips, images and illustrations relevant to th
Author(s): Moen Anne,Smørdal Ole

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Categorisation in Knowledge building
In this paper we explore how students talk and reason when they were exposed to a set of categories taken from scientific discourse. The scientific categories are built into a web-based discussion forum (Fle) as part of a pedagogical and technological design. The scientific categories are based on the concepts of the progressive inquiry model for knowledge building. Socio-cultural theory with a focus on concepts like categories and prompting is our theoretical framework. In the DoCTA NSS proje
Author(s): Ludvigsen Sten,Mørch Anders

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The Complexity of Distributed Collaborative Learning: Unit of Analysis
The problem area of this paper is manifested in the new conditions that characterise distributed collaborative learning. The core argument is that distributed collaborative learning implies an interconnected complexity that can only be properly understood by extending the unit of analysis from technology and pedagogy themselves to real-life social contexts in which networked computers are being used. Experiments and small-scale field trials are only steps towards a deeper understanding of how co
Author(s): Fjuk Annita,Ludvigsen Sten

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Networked Computers’ Incorporated Role in Collaborative Learning
Networked computers are increasingly being used in collaborative learning. To understand what roles networked computers have in collaborative learning over distances, systems developers need conceptual frameworks that address the triadic complexity of knowledge construction, social interaction and technical issues. Some theoretical accounts of this relationship exits, but in terms of usefulness for systems design and how the role of networked is regarded, they have shortcomings. Based on activit
Author(s): Fjuk Annita,Smørdal Ole

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Museology and the Problem of Interiority
Museum and culture studies traditionally approach social issues related to national museum narratives by critically analyzing the historical development and orderings of collections and their functions. Studies may investigate museums' representational practices in interpretations of the 'other,' for example, or the role of official and state narratives in history museums' constructions of national identity, or scientific paradigms in natural history museums' orderings and material culture. Ofte
Author(s): Pierroux Palmyre

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Principles of Effective Online Teaching
Principles of effective online teaching helps you understand and develop your own e-learning by presenting various approaches, options, and decisions involved in e-learning. The book also provides the necessary overview of constructs, relevant pedagogical theories, and definitions common to the field. It has been designed to help you navigate the virtual forest of e-learning and the rethinking and modifying of your teaching, curriculum, and methods of planning necessary to become more effective
Author(s): Buzzetto-More Nicole A.

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Learning Objects 4: Applications, Implications, & Future Direction
This is the fourth and final book of this series on Learning Objects (LO). Whereas the first three books were essentially concerned with current developments in the field, this book presents a wide-ranging series of discussions of potential and probable developments in the field. Part I encompasses Chapters 1 through Chapter 5. The focus is upon LO within the context of e-learning and online learning. We realize that our authors (like us) often use the terms "e-learning" and "online learning" in
Author(s): Harman Keith,Koohang Alex

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