"Oh God, For One More Breath": Early 20th century Tennessee Coal Miners' Last Words
Coal mining and railroad work were the two most dangerous trades in the United States in the early 20th century. Coal miners frequently died in spectacular explosions and cave-ins that could kill dozens or even hundreds at a time. Although most testimony about coal mining disasters came from survivors and observers, the men who suffocated to death in the Fraterville, Tennessee mines in May 1902 left behind their own grim account. Trapped in the mine after an explosion and with their air rapidly
Kate Richards O'Hare's Life as a Socialist Party Organizer
In her autobiographical essay, "How I Became a Socialist Agitator," which was first published in Socialist Woman in October 1908, Socialist Party organizer Kate Richards O'Hare credited her career as a "Socialist agitator" to her youthful exposure to poverty and "sordid suffering." As she explained in this essay, her disillusionment with the church and a talk by labor organizer "Mother"Jones further pushed her toward socialism.
A Georgia Sharecropper's Story of Forced Labor ca. 1900
At the turn of the century the group of black women most subject to sexual exploitation and abuse were those who lived under the system of quasi-slavery known as "peonage."Under contract labor laws, which existed in almost every southern state, a laborer who signed a contract and then quit his or her job could be arrested. The horrors of this system of forced labor (as well as the equally horrific system of convict labor) are detailed in this stark, turn-of-the-century personal account of life u
"Forty-Two Cents an Hour" for Twelve to Fourteen Hours a Day: George Milkulvich Describes Work in th
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, George Milkulvich, an immigrant from the Croatian region of Dalmatia (along the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea), gave a straightforward explanation of what he was striking for--"better treatment."
"It Is Entirely the Bolshevik Spirit": Mill superintendent W. M. Mink Explains the 1919 Steel Strike
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, W. M. Mink, mill superintendent at the Homestead steelworks, testified that the cause of the strike was simple--the infection of "the Bolshevik spirit"among "the foreigners."
"They Are Mostly All Foreigners on Strike": Joseph Fish Speaks on the 1919 Steel Strike
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, Homestead, Pennsylvania, steelworker Joseph Fish described conditions in the steel mills as good and maintained that only "one or two" Americans have joined the strike.
"The Men Seem To Be Pretty Well Satisfied": John Anderson on the 1919 Steel Strike
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, John Anderson, a helper in the open-hearth furnace at the Homestead steelworks in Pennsylvania, maintains that the steelworkers were satisfied with conditions. Although born in Scotland, Anderson identified himself as an"American" in distinction
"Please, Let Me Put Him in a Macaroni Box" The Spanish Influenza of 1918 in Philadelphia
In 1918 and 1919 the Spanish influenza killed more humans than any other disease in a similar period in the history of the world. In the United States a quarter of the population (25 million people or more) contracted the flu; 550,000 died. In the early 1980s, when historian Charles Hardy did interviews for the Philadelphia radio program "The Influenza Pandemic of 1918," he was struck by the painful memories as many older Philadelphians recalled the inability of the city to care for the dead and
"Nobody Would Eat Kraut": Lola Gamble Clyde on Anti-German Sentiment in Idaho During World War I
When the United States went to war against Germany in 1917, German Americans faced vicious and unfair attacks on their loyalty. Many anti-German incidents were not recorded, but they lived on powerfully in people's memories. In this 1976 interview, Lola Gamble Clyde, the daughter of an Irish-born Presbyterian minister and a teenager during World War I, described the "hysteria" that faced German Americans in rural Latah County, Idaho.
"Eight Hours a Day and Better Conditions": Andrew Pido Explains His Support for the 1919 Steel Strik
In the dramatic 1919 steel strike, 350,000 workers walked off their jobs and crippled the industry. The U.S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor set out to investigate the strike while it was still in progress. In his testimony before the committee, Slavic steelworker Andrew Pido described the discrimination faced by some immigrant workers and how that discrimination - along with long pay and poor conditions--encouraged them to unionize and strike.
"Get the Rope!" Anti-German Violence in World War I-era Wisconsin
In the early 20th century, German Americans were the nation's largest immigrant group. Although they were regarded as a model of successful assimilation, they faced vicious--and sometimes violent--attacks on their loyalty when the United States went to war against Germany in 1917. The most notorious incident was the lynching of German-born Robert Prager in Colinsville, Illinois, in April 1918. Other incidents stopped just short of murder. In a statement made on October 22, 1918, John Deml, a far
Interactive Lectures: summaries of 36 formats
This website contains thirty-six interactive lecture format ideas and advice on using each format. Lecture formats range from Brainstorming to Teamwork exercises. Each format describes the basic idea, the application, sample topics and the flow of the lecture format.
Ice Core Gateway: Vostok Ice Core CO2 Data
The Vostok ice core has a long record of global carbon dioxide concentrations, with variations caused by factors other than photosynthesis and human activity. Ice core data sets from three different authors are available for download. Users can also link to other NOAA paleoclimate projects and information.
The Use of a Piece of Land
The Use of a Piece of Land activity was developed by The Maine State Library. This activity engages students in a practical exercise in land use planning and makes students aware of the positive and negative aspects of land use laws and local zoning ordinances through role-playing. The students represent groups interested in purchasing the same piece of land. Each group must research to devise a plan that is legal and environmentally attractive, and present proposals to convince the current owne
This lab activity is part of the Starting Point collection. In this short, serial basic-meteorology lab, students identify different cloud types and estimate cloud cover over a period of several days. This website details learning goals, context for the lab, and teaching notes. A list of teaching materials and links to further resources are also provided.
Starting Point: teaching entry level geoscience
This website is the portal homepage for the Starting Point collection. This site is designed for faculty and graduate students teaching undergraduate entry-level geoscience, environmental science, or related courses. Each section describes a teaching method, why/when it is useful, how it can be implemented, and a set of examples spanning the Earth system that can be used in your class. Users can follow links to field labs, interactive lectures, investigative case-based learning, teaching with mo
The California Academy of Science department of invertebrate zoology and geology provides a list of diatom genera with photos of representative species and bibliographic references. The catalog contains a total of 472 species, varieties and forms, comprising 130 genera of diatoms.
The Back Channel
From 1969 to 1973, Paul Nitze served as a member of the U.S. delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT). In this video segment, Nitze describes the useful role that 'back channel' negotiations can play and discusses the particular problems with national security adviser Henry Kissinger's negotiations in the final days of SALT I. The second part of the segment addresses Watergate's impact on Nitze's participation in SALT II.Nitze's interview conducted for War and Peace in the Nucle
George Rochberg and His Music
Documentary containing interview footage with the composer George Rochberg, and narrated overview of his life and music. Includes performances of his music recorded for this program. Rochberg compositions are performed for the piece. They include: 'Between Two Worlds,' with Sue Ann Kahn on flute and Andrew Willis on piano 'Rehearsal,' with Joseph Robinson on Oboe 'Soundings' was a music documentary program affiliated with the Workshop and produced by Bernice 'Bunny' Olenick.
Music of Ivana Themmen, The
Documentary containing interview footage with the composer Ivana Themmen, and narrated overview of her life and music. Includes performances of her music recorded for this program. Themmen compositions are performed for the piece. They include: 'Mystic Trumpeter,' featuring Katherine Ciesinski as soprano and Harold Themmen as conductor 'Cupid and Psyche,' with Emanuel Borok on violin'Lullaby,' with Allegra and Tania Themmen 'Soundings' was a music documentary program affiliated with the Workshop