Precipitation Protocols
The purpose of this activity is to determine the amount of moisture input to the local environment by measuring rain and snowfall and to measure the pH of precipitation. To do so students use a rain gauge and a snowboard to measure the daily amount of precipitation. Special pH measuring techniques for precipitation are used to determine the pH of rain and melted snow. Intended outcomes are that students will understand that precipitation is measured in depth and this depth is assumed to apply to
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Mid-level spreadsheeting and complex modeling of real-world scarp evolution
This lab activity is a familiarization exercise in spreadsheet modeling, and is also a mathematical model for slope evolution. It aims to familiarize students with moderately complex Excel manipulations, reinforce good technical graphical techniques, and introduce basic mathematical modeling of natural ...
Author(s): Bill Locke,Carleton College Science Education Reso

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Determining Earthquake Probability and Recurrence from Past Seismic Events
Students completing this homework and in-class exercise use historical data from small earthquakes to estimate the recurrence interval of They are encouraged to examine sampling limitations, thoughtfully deal with outliers, compare the results of various techniques and consider the societal impacts of their results. This activity is designed for the Pacific Northwest, but could easily be altered for any other area. Learning goals, context for use, teaching tips, materials, assessment tips and re
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USGS Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations: Frequency Curves
This 21-page pdf file is Book 4, Chapter A2 of a series of manuals on techniques and procedures for planning and executing specialized work in water-resources investigations. It describes procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of
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Vectors and slope stability
This activity is designed to teach students with little or no experience with vectors, free-body diagrams, or the like to apply vectors to slope stability problems. Students first learn the basic properties of vectors, vector addition, resolving forces, etc. They then apply these techniques to establish in a simplified way how geologists can determine if a slope is stable, how much loading a slope can withstand before it becomes unstable, and other principles of slope stability determination. Le
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Star Library: Counting Eights: A First Activity in the Study and Interpretation of Probability
Students explore the definition and interpretations of the probability of an event by investigating the long run proportion of times a sum of 8 is obtained when two balanced dice are rolled repeatedly. Making use of hand calculations, computer simulations, and descriptive techniques, students encounter ...
Author(s): Bradley A. Hartlaub and Brian D. Jones

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Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish
This exercise provides practice in a number of important general animal behavior techniques such as maintenance of freshwater aquaria, the use of an oscilloscope and other electronic devises for behavioral recording, and the taxonomic identification of fish.
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Sister Chromatid Differentiation and Exchange in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in Culture
This laboratory exercise is designed to illustrate the semi-conservative mode of DNA duplication through the expression of sister chromatid differentiation (SCD), the single-stranded nature of the eukaryotic chromosome organization, and the mutagenic effects of certain chemical or physical agents through induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE). Through individual work and/or a group project, students will learn the basic cell culturing and cytogenetic techniques for chromosome studies, especiall
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Species Diversity, Island Biogeography, and the Design of Nature Reserves
This field and laboratory investigation is an open-ended exercise designed to test predictions from island biogeography theory using various-sized fragments of leaf litter arthropod communities as "island" systems. Litter islands are constructed in a deciduous forest and students collect samples of leaf litter and extract arthropods using the Berlese Funnel technique. After arthropods are collected, students learn identification techniques, compute diversity indices, construct dominance-diversit
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Stream and Pond Field Trip
Streams and ponds offer good opportunities for comparative studies of biological communities. This exercise describes techniques for sampling aquatic organisms and quantifying habitat features that influence the kinds of organisms found in aquatic habitats. Inexpensive home-made alternatives to commercially-made ...
Author(s): Frank Rahel

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The Kankapot Creek Coast Guard: Public service through water quality monitoring of a stressed stream
The Biology Department at the University of Wisconsin -- Fox Valley is carrying out a long-term project in which students gather water quality data on a nearby impaired stream. These data will eventually be used to help formulate a restoration plan for the stream. This exercise follows the procedures our students use to assess stream habitat quality, chemical and physical parameters, and benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and pollution tolerance. Data collection is completed in the field using
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The Power of Genetics: Using Classical and Molecular Genetics to Study "Real" Developmental Phenomen
The goal of this laboratory exercise is to provide a laboratory experience for undergraduates, in which they apply fundamental genetic principles to the study of a complex developmental process, specifically, root cell shape determination in the simple plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this exercise, students identify putative root cell shape mutants, analyze an F2 segregating population, and finally use molecular techniques to determine where a specific mutation in located within the genome. This
Author(s): Leonard Pysh

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Tracheid Length Measurement in Selected Conifer Species
This exercise illustrates the techniques for macerating wood and staining, mounting, and measuring tracheids. Mean tracheid length is different in different species of conifers; therefore, this laboratory can be expanded into a larger scale comparative measurement exercise.
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Use PCR and a Single Hair to Produce a "DNA Fingerprint"
As a former student once commented, "PCR is the sliced bread of molecular biology". Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a process that allows an investigator to amplify a portion of a single piece of DNA into over one billion copies. We have used PCR with our Introductory Biology students to generate a simple "DNA fingerprint". This exercise will outline all the steps required to generate a DNA fingerprint for each student during two lab meetings. This article covers the background information co
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Therapod Fossil Hunt Dispatch
This five-part online article reports on the finding of a dromaeosaur fossil, the best specimen to date to show that feathers existed long before modern birds and flight. Part 1 includes: It All Started with Feathers, A Path Shrouded in Mystery, and International Collaboration. Part 2 has The Short Email and A Coat of Feathers. Part 3 includes: An Initial Hypothesis and Is It Authentic? The Analysis Begins. Part 4 has The Examination and Description Marathon, A Feathered What?, and Feathers, Fea
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Genetic Literacy: Meeting the Teaching Challenge
This online article, from the museum's Musings newsletter for educators, provides insight into teaching genetics and building genetic literacy. It looks at ways that teachers can: build their own knowledge base stay abreast of the wave of new information about genetics give their students the tools and techniques to make their way in the genomic age.
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Article :: Pyrotechnics: Creating Fire, Explosions, and Energy Phenomena in After Effects 7.0
Humans are so familiar with fire that we can tell when it looks wrong, even if we don't understand the physics of explosions and fireworks. By using Mark Christiansen's After Effects techniques, however, you can provide at the compositing stage what the filmmaker couldn't afford on set: realism.
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Empirical Research Methods in Software Engineering
This course will explore the role of empiricism in software engineering research, and will prepare students for advanced research in SE by examining how to plan, conduct and report on empirical investigations. The course will cover all of the principal methods applicable to SE: controlled experiment, case studies, surveys, archival analysis, action research and ethnographies, and will relate these methods to relevant metatheories in the philosophy and sociology of science. The course will critic
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21L.701 Literary Interpretation: Literature and Urban Experience (MIT)
Alienation, overcrowding, sensory overload, homelessness, criminality, violence, loneliness, sprawl, blight. How have the realities of city living influenced literature's formal and thematic techniques? How useful is it to think of literature as its own kind of "map" of urban space? Are cities too grand, heterogeneous, and shifting to be captured by writers? In this seminar we will seek answers to these questions in key city literature, and in theoretical works that endeavor to understand the cu
Author(s): Brouillette, Sarah

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

Dog examination techniques
This presentation has been developed to introduce veterinary students to the process of carrying out a systematic physical examination in canine patients. It is designed to act as an introduction to these processes and procedures only, giving the students a framework from which to work as they develop and refine these skills throughout the veterinary course. Physical examination is a key skill which will be used throughout a veterinary surgeon's career and is a key determinant in selecting diag
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