3.2 Relationships and ethics

Activity 12

Read the script of the audio play Call Waiting attached below. Jot down some answers to the following questions:

  1. What is valued in the play?

  2. What action is taken?<
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1.8 ‘Ethics’, ‘ethical’ and authority

There is some confusion over the uses of the terms ‘ethical’ and ‘ethics’. Often people use the adjective ‘ethical’ to signal things that they would expect virtuous people to do. That is they use the word ‘ethical’ instead of ‘good’. Companies, institutions and even governments might claim to have ‘ethical’ policies. Probably such a policy declares the ideology. For example, saying that ‘sustainability is ethical’ may be part of an individual's ethic but it is a ta
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6.8 Anticipating the arguments

  • 18. Have the objectives and perspectives of all the key stakeholders concerned with the decision been taken account of in the previous assessment of costs, benefits and risks?

  • 19. What are the reasons that this proposal is preferred over other op
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4.1 Background to Vue

This section discusses one of four video case studies used in the T883 course to illustrate some basic concepts of operations management covered by the course.

Vue Entertainment is a relatively young organisation, formed in 2003 with the acquisition of 36 cinemas from the Warner Village chain. At the time of writing (October 2007) it currently operates 579 screens and 130,585 seats over 59 cinemas. It sees its approach as firmly based upon its desire to consistently provide ‘the best
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3.4 Managing across interfaces

Increasingly, operations management is seen as an interface discipline (Voss, 1995). Managing across interfaces, both internal and external to the organisation, is a particular challenge for managers and this is discussed further in this section.

Information and communications technology is an important means of linking across the various interfaces. Author(s): The Open University

8.3.1 Fluorine-based etching of silicon

Given the noxious chemistry needed to etch silicon with a liquid, it is perhaps surprising that a gas can do the job at all. However, both xenon fluoride (XeF2) and chlorine trifluoride (ClF3) gases have been used successfully for just this purpose. Each acts as a source of fluorine atoms, which are just barely bound together into molecules and are easily rearranged around silicon atoms with which they form strong bonds, turning them into inert SiF4 gas. These
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7.4.4 Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD)

In PECVD a plasma is initiated in the CVD chamber, usually by supplying an RF voltage to the platen on which the wafer sits – the chamber geometry is similar to a reactive ion etch chamber. Ions are accelerated from this plasma onto the wafer surface, so that the CVD reaction is initiated not only by heating the wafer, but also by the energy imparted as the ions land. This allows high-quality film deposition at much lower wafer temperatures and higher deposition rates than unenhanced CVD, w
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7.4 Depositing compounds

As well as conducting metal layers, device fabrication requires dielectric, insulating materials and these are mostly chemical compounds rather than simple elements or alloys. By far the most widely used of these is silicon oxide (either as a glass or as crystalline quartz), but other oxides and nitrides are also common, plus polymers and a selection of more exotic materials.

Such compounds generally have very high melting points, or decompose under heating, so cannot be deposited by ev
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7.3.4 Physical vapour deposition (PVD), sputtering

An ion hitting a metal surface after acceleration through more than 100 V will not stick or bounce off but will burrow into the surface, splashing atoms outwards. This is known as sputtering and provides a versatile alternative to thermal evaporation for metal-vapour deposition: more controllable, with adjustable uniformity, able to cope with alloys and high-melting-point metals and suitable for production-line automation. Given these advantages, it is also worth the effort to heat the
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6.6 Oscillators in general

Although this section has dealt only with mass-spring systems, the analysis can be extended to any system where there is an oscillating driving force acting on a mass which is located by a restoring force. In fact, the analysis is even more general than this and can be applied to electronic networks where voltages and currents oscillate in much the same way as the mass on the spring.


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6.2 Natural frequency of free oscillations

Most of us have a fairly accurate understanding of what is meant by resonance – it's what causes a bell to continue to make a sound long after it has been struck. Yet this is just one example of resonance, a phenomenon that occurs in nature in a surprisingly large number of places.

It is all to do with the reversible transfer of energy from one form to another in a system. The common feature associated with mechanical systems that are able to store energy by oscillating is that they h
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5.2 Material comparisons

I want to depart from the specific example of the bicycle to make some more general points.

In most simple structural analysis the self-weight of the structure is ignored, as it is considered to be small in comparison with the loads carried. However, as an illustration of engineering practice in the search for efficient structures to employ in product design, it is worth examining how the strength and weight of particular materials compare.

These comparisons are illustrated throug
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2.5 Making multiple copies

Berliner was aware that Edison had problems duplicating cylinders. Initially copies were made from a master cylinder using a mechanical engraving process. Unfortunately this method caused the master cylinder to wear out after making just a few copies, so performers had to be asked to record several masters to ensure enough cylinders could be duplicated. An improved recording system allowed multiple master cylinders to be made by feeding several recording phonographs from one horn, but the cyl
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1 Capturing sound

Have you ever listened carefully to a recording of your own voice?

In this first activity, I want you to make a short recording of your voice.

Activity 1 (Optional)

Note: This optional activity requires the use of a
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Acknowledgements

The following material is Proprietary and is used under licence:

Text

Naughton, J. (1998) ‘Arts: Internet: It's free and it works. No wonder Bill Gates hates it’, Observer, 8 November 1998, © Guardian News and Media Ltd 2005;

Wilkins, E. (1994) ‘Rescued from £1 a day for girl's upkeep’, The Times, 31 January 1994. Copyright © Times Newspapers Ltd 1994;

‘Agency demands 1p from father’, The Time
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3.2 Being aware of the constraints and possibilities of the observer

It is often claimed that the essence of a systems approach is that of seeing the world in a special way. This immediately prompts the question of what is meant by the phrase ‘seeing the world’. Because we live so intimately with the world of objects, categories and people and phenomena, we tend to think our own way of seeing the world is the only way, or even of thinking, ‘Well that is my view because the world is like that’. Actually, your view is special in several separate ways.
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11.5.5 Chance

Another important source of inventions and scientific discoveries is chance, which is strongly associated with acts of insight. As well as the sort of painstaking work that either precedes an invention or goes into the steady improvement in performance, in the development of most inventions there's a moment when chance plays a part. Often people are looking for one thing but find another – perhaps working on one technology when they stumble on the principles behind another. The skill of the
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5.14 Compact fluorescents and new developments

In the case of the electric light there were a series of incremental product innovations (metal filaments, gas filled bulbs, frosted bulbs) as well as process innovations (some of which were mentioned above), which steadily improved performance and reduced price until, by the 1930s, the incandescent light was mature and diffused in many nations.

Then in the mid-1930s a new invention appeared that was to challenge the incandescent lamp – the fluorescent lamp. This was the culmination o
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4.1 An explanation

I will now elaborate on my answer from Exercise 1. I'm doing this because my internet search revealed more than I've written in the above answer, and to show that the invention of the telephone and its use by consumers is not as plain and simple as you may think. You we
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