References

American Heart Association (2006) ‘Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2006 update: A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee’, Circulation, 113, pp. e85–e151.
Bandolier (2005) Statins: when should you take the tablet?Author(s): The Open University

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12 Glossary

You can access the unit glossary by clicking the link below.

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1.5 Arithmetic with real numbers

We can do arithmetic with recurring decimals by first converting the decimals to fractions. However, it is not obvious how to do arithmetic with non-recurring decimals. For example, assuming that we can represent and Author(s): The Open University

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8.2.2 The screen

You can see the calculations that you have entered as well as the answers. This means you can easily check whether you have made any mistakes.


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7.3 Square rooting a negative number

Another problem surfaces if you start with a negative number and try to find its square root. For example try to find the square root of 4 on your calculator. Depending upon how your calculator is set up, you may either get an error message or an unfamiliar number like 2i or 2j. This is because there is no real number which squared will give you the negative number 4. Every real number, whether positive or negative, has a positive square. There are some numbers, ca
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6.2 Getting the feel of big and small numbers

Very small and very large numbers can be difficult to comprehend. Nothing in our everyday experience helps us to get a good feel for them. For example numbers such as 1099 are so big that if Figure 1 was drawn to scale, you would be dealing with enormous distances. How big is big?

First express 1 000 000 000 in scientific notation as 109. Next, to find out how many times bigger 1099 is, use your calculator to divide 1099 by 109
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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1.4.3 Velocity

Another vector quantity which crops up frequently in applied mathematics is velocity. In everyday English, the words ‘speed’ and ‘velocity’ mean much the same as each other, but in scientific parlance there is a significant difference between them.

Velocity and speed

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1.2.1 Heating and cooling the Earth: the overall radiation balance

The Sun emits electromagnetic radiation with a range of wavelengths, but its peak emission is in the visible band – the sunlight that allows us to see. The wavelength of radiation has important climatic implications, as we shall see shortly. For now, we are mainly interested in the overall rate at which energy in the form of solar radiation reaches the Earth.

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1.3.8 Summary of section

  • During the 1970s and 1980s, countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan benefited from their low-cost advantages in the new global division of labour. Now, however, the gap between rich and poor nations is wider and competition in the world economy greater, prompting campaigning groups to argue that contemporary low-wage economies do not have the options for economic development that their predecessors had.

  • In the face of market fragment
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1.3.4 Bringing remote sweatshops within reach continued

Another claim made by the movement is that we are all in some way connected to a market system which effectively allows sweatshops to exist in the first place. This is about more than targeting the big brand names and linking them directly to exploitation abroad; rather, it is about piecing together the global market machinery that ties the corporate buyer, the boardroom executive, the factory owner and the consumer into a system which establishes particular lines of responsibility (Ha
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Introduction

Sweatshops and the exploitation of workers are often linked to the globalised production of ‘big brand’ labels. This unit examines how campaigners have successfully closed the distance between the brands and the sweatshops, while others argue that such production ‘kick starts’ economies into growth benefiting whole communities.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Author(s): The Open University

6.1 Introduction

So far, we have briefly introduced three key approaches to improving the sustainability of human energy use in the future. These are:

  • (a) ‘cleaning-up’ fossil and nuclear technologies;

  • (b) switching to renewable energy sources;

  • (c) using energy more efficiently.


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2.4 Summarising conversation as what matters

Brian Wynne suggests that fundamental dichotomies associated with environmental matters underpin modern society – society versus nature, the social versus the natural, social knowledge versus natural knowledge, expert knowledge versus lay knowledge (1996, p. 45). The metaphor of conversation helps to move us beyond these dichotomous constructs and allows us to focus more on the integral relationships enmeshed in nature matters, relationships that I would argue are central to environmental r
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2.1 Environment and technology

A central concern of environmental studies is the relationship between technology and our environment: how people use technology to transform materials into forms which can meet our needs and wants. In the process of doing this we inevitably change the environment which provides these materials but which also supports all life.

A few moments ago I went to my fridge and took some milk out to add to a cup of coffee. I used this common example of a modern domestic appliance without a secon
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6.3 International distributive justice

While communitarians strongly support an interpretation of the UN postwar settlement based on the principle of national self-determination, many cosmopolitans seek to go beyond that settlement. Those who endorse cosmopolitanism look forward to a further development and structuring of global relations, governed by the principle of universal rights, in which the exercise of national sovereignty is conditional on respect for human rights. Some, but not all, cosmopolitans wish to institutionalise
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5.3 Problems with international rights

The international human rights discourse claims that the value of its conception of rights lies in it being universal, empowering and human-centred. The idea of universality asserts the relevance of human rights to anyone, anywhere. Empowerment is the concept of human rights as a defence against inequality and the domination of the powerful over the weak. The human-centred feature of international rights seeks to provide a perspective on global questions, ‘putting the value of human dignity
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2.1 Introduction to the problems with the way we think

The way in which we think, and the way in which we think about thinking in our Western tradition, can be traced back at least to Parmenides of Elea, a Presocratic Greek philosopher who lived around 500 BC. His influence on our thinking is hard to overestimate – from it grew the notion that what can be known must be real, and what is real is eternal and unchanging. Though many others have contributed since, the Greek philosophers laid the foundation for the way in which we currently think ab
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3.1 Belonging to a group

Because work groups are of central significance in the functioning of an organisation they have been studied intensively, and much has been written about group processes. In this reading it would be inappropriate to attempt to review this vast literature, which covers an enormous range of topics and aspects of groups. Instead, I focus attention here on two particular aspects of groups. First, I examine the nature of the contracts within a group: what it is that people gain from belonging to a
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Learning outcomes

After completing this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the main features of work groups and teams;

  • discuss the main group processes that affect work group or team effectiveness;

  • describe the main features of projects, project teams and project management;

  • discuss some types of theories about effective leadership.


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