A Pledge of Allegiance: Joining the Grange
When the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was first organized in Minnesota in December 1867, its goals were primarily social and educational. The organization spread rapidly throughout the agricultural Midwest, attracting more than 850,000 members by 1875. The Grange's purpose also expanded--it experimented (unsuccessfully) with cooperatives, and, angered by hard times, tight money, and high railroad shipping rates, moved into politics. Members elected sympathetic state legislators wh
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"A Modern School": Abraham Flexner Outlines Progressive Education
In the early 20th century, an impressive array of intellectuals, social critics, and grassroots activists came together to launch a progressive education movement that sought broad-based change in American educational practice. At the heart of the progressive program lay a pedagogy that emphasized flexibility and critical thinking. This was coupled with the belief that schools should establish organic relationships with their communities, that curricula should confront broad social issues, and t
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"A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July 1863."
Photographers covered the Civil War, following the Union Army in wagons that served as traveling darkrooms. Their equipment was bulky and the exposures had to be long, so they could not take action photographs during battle. But photography was graphic; this picture taken on the morning of July 4th, 1863 after three days of heavy fighting during the Battle of Gettysburg, showed the northern public that dying in battle lacked the gallantry often represented in paintings and prints.
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"A German Beer Garden on Sunday Evening."
Between 1820 and 1860, 1,500,000 immigrants arrived in America from Germany. Many of the new arrivals who settled in cities such as New York worked as shopkeepers and skilled tradesmen, although many more worked as employees in construction, brewing, and manufacturing. Although German immigrants did not mix politics and liquor, reformers were disconcerted by the atmosphere of their social establishments. Unlike the bars in Irish neighborhoods, the beer gardens catered to whole families. As this
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A Clear and Present Danger: The Chinese Exclusion Act
The San Francisco Building Trades Council (BTC), organized in 1898, actively participated in the anti-Asian agitation that characterized California politics, particularly labor politics, in the late-19th century. The BTC, like the national American Federation of Labor (AFL), argued that the very presence of Chinese (and, after 1900, Japanese and Korean immigrants as well) dragged down the living standards of white workers. The following excerpt is from a 1902 AFL pamphlet entitled Some Reasons f
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A Christ-like Character: A Catholic Priest Champions Henry George
In the late 19th century, Irish-Catholic immigrants and their children were a bulwark of the New York Democratic Party and especially the machine politicians of Tammany Hall. In the mayoral election of 1886, Tammany fought hard to retain the support of these Irish-Catholic voters in the race between Democrat Abram Hewitt and United Labor Party candidate Henry George. While Catholic Church leaders opposed George and actively worked to prevent his election, Father Edward McGlynn enthusiastically b
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"The Talibanization of South Asia: Can it Be Stopped?" (video)
wbh logoA talk by Pervez Hoodbhoy, Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azama University. Dr. Hoodbhoy received his bachelor's degrees in electrical engineering and mathematics, master's in solid state physics, and Ph.D in nuclear physics, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been a faculty member at the Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad since 1973. He is cha
Author(s): The Center for International Studies at the Univer

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Rights not set

Census and redistricting plan
David Boeri reports that the state of Massachusetts has lost a seat in the US House of Representatives because of a decline in the population according to the 1990 census. Boeri notes that Ray Flynn (Mayor of Boston ) and others are calling for a recount because they believe that the census undercounts urban residents. Boeri's report is accompanied by footage of census workers going from door to door. Boeri reports on speculation that Joe Early (US Congressman) may retire and on speculation that
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Car wash sequence from 'Easy Living'
'Easy Living' follows the movements and activities of individuals represented by miniature objects, most notably the kinds of dolls, locations, and accessories affiliated with model construction. This miniature suburban world traces a typical day in suburbia. Shown here is a short excerpt of a car as it progresses through a miniature car wash.
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Blast from the Past' with Raymond St. Jacques
Blast from the Past' features an excerpt from a 1970 interview with actor Raymond St. Jacques on Hollywood's prescribed roles for African American actors. He talks about his role in the John Wayne film, The Green Berets, and the continual struggle to get African American actors chosen and represented properly on film.
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Census : how many people live in the United States?
This activity opens with a bar graph depicting low, middle, and high estimates of United States population growth between 2000 and 2100. Students are given two statements about population growth and asked to decide if the data support those statements. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, explains how graphic representations of population growth are used by politicians and city planners. The Hint suggests that students approa
Author(s): National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

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Content copyright 1999-2002 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Bar codes : can you decode a barcode?
In this activity, students are shown a key to the post office conversion code and given a bar coded zip code to decipher. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, introduces the bar-coding system and explains how the system enables businesses and banks to run more efficiently. The Hint suggests that students group the long and short bars into sets of five and then refer to the key to see what number is being represented. Related
Author(s): National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

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Content copyright 1999-2002 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Topics in Pre-Modern Japanese History
This book emphasizes a succession of topics rather than strict adherence to the flow of time. The chapters move from earlier periods of time to later periods of time, but their content and organization gives top priority to coverage of topics. While the "mainstream" narrative of politics and institutions is present in these pages, the emphasis is on social and cultural history wherever possible.
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Let's Talk Politics: Berkeley Repertory Theatre
Acclaimed British playwright David Edgar takes aim at American politics with his two-play cycle, Continental Divide, at Berkeley Repertory Theatre. This Educator Guide explores the history of political activism and political theatre in the UK and the US.
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American Landscape and Architectural Design, 1850-1920
This collection of approximately 2,800 lantern slides represents an historical view of American buildings and landscapes built during the period 1850-1920. It represents the work of Harvard faculty, such as Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., Bremer W. Pond, and James Sturgis Pray, as well as that of prominent landscape architects throughout the country. The collection offers views of cities, specific buildings, parks, estates and gardens, including a complete history of Boston's Park System. In addition
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King Lear to In the loop : fiction and British politics
On 11 December 2009, Nottingham University's Centre for British Politics held a conference at the British Academy that drew together politicians, writers and academics to explore the interaction of British politics and fiction. In addition to the conference several video interviews were conducted with some of the speakers on the day. In this interview taken at the Fiction and British Politics Conference in London, MP and author Chris Mullin talks about his own political fiction and explains w
Author(s): Mullen Chris

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Except for third party materials (materials owned by someone other than The University of Nottingham) and where otherwise indicated, the copyright in the content provided in this resource is owned by

17.522 Politics and Religion (MIT)
This graduate reading seminar explores the role of religious groups, institutions, and ideas in politics using social science theories. It is open to advanced undergraduate students with permission of the instructor.
Author(s): Tsai, Lily

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

Conversations with Berkeley Faculty: Ira Lapidus (1/14/03)
Conversations with History Presents Faculty Research at the University of California, Berkeley A Conversation with Ira Lapidus Professor Emeritus of History "Islamic Societies" This interview took place on January 14, 2003. Complete transcript is available. Ira Lapidus, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of California, Berkeley, and the founding Chair of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies on the Berkeley campus. Professor Lapidus has traveled extensively across the Muslim worl
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Question of the Day: ANWR Drilling Policy
This "Question of the Day" activity asks students to examine two policy positions regarding drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) as a part of the interplay between science and politics. The students also determine their viewpoint on the issue and share/defend it with their peers. This site offers teaching notes and tips, downloadable materials, and links to additional online references and resources.
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Next steps
This unit is concerned with macroevolution – the patterns and processes of evolution above the species level. A crucial consideration in macroevolutionary studies is that of the evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) of the organisms in question. The unit begins with an introduction to the scope of macroevolutionary studies and illustrates methods of reconstructing phylogeny, from both morphological and molecular data.
Author(s): The Open University

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2