Influenza: A case study
This free course, Influenza: A case study, explores the biology of influenza, covering a range of topics including: the virus, infection, replication, mutation, immune responses, pathology, surveillance, diagnosis and treatment. First published on Thu, 03 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Introduction to histopathology
This free course provides an introduction to histopathology and outlines how the appearance of different tissues changes due to damage, inflammation, infection or degeneration and how microscopy can aid in the diagnosis of disease. First published on Tue, 14 Jun 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5.2 The pharmaceutical background

The existence of alpha receptors had been known for many years, and the obvious approach of trying to block these receptors, and hence prevent the noradrenaline from binding, had already been tried by many research groups. A number of compounds with alpha-blocking activity had been identified, including one called prazosin (2) discovered by Pfizer at their US research laboratories in Groton. Substances such as prazosin which block agonist action are called antagonists.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.14 Summing up

Activity 13

0 hours 5 minutes

Dr. Peterson concludes the audio sequence with a summary of all the points covered.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.11 Consequences of human / chimp pairing

Activity 10

0 hours 10 minutes

This clip refers back to the table of molecular characters, which is shown again here (Figure 9). It explains the consequences of human / chimp pairing in terms of homol
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Introduction

The versatility of mammals is a central theme of the ‘Studying mammals’ series of units, but surely no environment has tested that versatility as much as the rivers and oceans of the world. Mammals are essentially a terrestrial group of animals, but three major groups have independently adopted an aquatic way of life. In moving to the water, aquatic mammals have had to survive, feed and reproduce using a set of biological characteristics that evolved in association with life on land. This
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.2 Chemical elements

Atoms of the same atomic number behave virtually identically in chemical reactions. They are therefore given the same chemical name and chemical symbol. For example, the atom of atomic number 6, which is shown in Figure 1, is a carbon atom, whose symbol is C. All materials are made of atoms, but there is a special class of substan
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.3 An overview of animal phyla

We have already met quite a few different animal phyla, and it's useful to get an overview of all the ones commonly found in the fossil record and their mode of life before studying some in more detail. Except for a few soft-bodied phyla with very poor fossil records, it is clear that all the animal phyla had appeared by the Ordovician Period.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.1 Introduction

Despite efforts to avoid them, heart disease, heart failure and heart attacks do occur – sometimes with warning symptoms and sometimes without. Cardiologists (doctors specialising in the heart) use a variety of tests to determine the causes of different conditions leading to heart disease. They are then able to guide subsequent treatment. Special tests that are carried out in cardiology departments may include blood pressure measurements, blood tests, electrocardiography, angiography, echoc
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.7 Special circumstances?

Individuals can only attempt to alter risk factors they are aware of and need to be informed about what is relevant to them. Women and men have different considerations, and ethnic background can also have an influence on susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Such considerations require improved awareness based on reliable knowledge from scientific studies (see Author(s): The Open University

4.6 A balanced diet

Our diet is simply what we eat and drink. Diet does not mean that we are trying to lose weight, although sometimes this is necessary. What we eat is very important, particularly in people with diabetes (as you found out in Section 3). Our wellbeing is influenced by whether or not we eat a balanced diet. A balanced diet is one
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.1 Preamble

Statistical information is a familiar aspect of modern life, which features routinely in, for example, news reports, sports commentaries and advertising. Scientists who have collected large amounts of data by either counting or measuring quantities also rely on statistical techniques to help them make sense of these data. Suppose you had information collected from, say, three thousand patients, all with the same medical condition but undergoing a variety of treatments. First you would need te
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Convenience

The calculator is small and slips conveniently into a bag or pocket. You will be able to carry it around with you and use it unobtrusively as and when you want – perhaps in a shop, on a train or in a restaurant.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Ease of use

Most aspects of the calculator are straightforward to use. Calculations are entered on the screen in the same order as you would write them down. More complicated mathematical functions and features are also reasonably intuitive, and there are ‘escape’ mechanisms, so that you can explore without worrying about how you will get back to where you were.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1 Symmetry in two dimensions

In Section 1 we discuss intuitive ideas of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure, and define the set of symmetries of such a figure. We then view these symmetries as functions that combine under composition, and show that the resulting structure has properties known as closure, identity, inverses and associativity. We use these properties to define a group in Author(s): The Open University

3.4 Drawing and interpreting graphs

A graph shows the relationship between two quantities. These quantities may be very different: for instance, the price of coffee in relation to different years, or the braking distance of a car in relation to different speeds, or the height of a child at different ages. Because the quantities are different, there is no need to have equal scales on the graph, and it is often impractical to do so. However, it is essential that the scales are shown on the axes: they should indicate exactly what
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Introduction

This unit lays the foundations of the subject of mechanics. Mechanics is concerned with how and why objects stay put, and how and why they move. In particular, this unit – Modelling static problems – considers why objects stay put.

Please note that this unit assumes you have a good working knowledge of vectors.

This is an adapted extract from the Open University course Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • be able to solve homogeneous second-order equations;

  • know a general method for constructing solutions to inhomogeneous linear constant-coefficient second-order equations;

  • know about initial and boundary conditions to obtain particular values of constants in the general solution of second-order differential equations.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share