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1.1.1 Assessing your current level of knowledge

If you explore all the resources and activities in this unit, you might need to allow between two and nine hours to complete it.

Before you read this guide, why not use the self-assessment questions on the following screens to rate your current level of knowledge?

Print or save these questions and for each question, mark the most appropriate number on the scale. When you have finished, you can review your answers. A score of three or less might indicate a gap in your know
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you have an understanding and awareness of:

  • the measurements of poverty in Scotland;

  • living with poverty in Scotland;

  • groups vulnerable to poverty in Scotland;

  • rural poverty, community-based responses, financial exclusion, local taxation, employability and health.


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4.2 Questions for review and discussion

Question 1

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3.2 The benefits of the new economy

The benefits claimed for the new economy are mainly concerned with technological change, productivity and economic growth. Manuel Castells (2001) argues that we have entered a new technological paradigm centred around microelectronics-based information/communication technologies. The development of the internet, in particular, is said to have profound implications for the organisation of economic activity and for increasing productivity.

The internet provides a new communication medium
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3.1 Introduction

As well as looking at the behaviour of firms and the industries and markets to which they belong, economists also engage in a different style of inquiry, thinking about what economic change means for the lives of the people involved. Once again there is a variety of interpretations and different ideas but this time they concern the desirability of economic change. What benefits does the ‘new economy’ bring and what costs, or negative effects, does it impose on people? In analysing these b
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2.2 The shift from manufacturing to services in industrialised economies

There was a profound restructuring of economic activity in ‘older’ industrialised countries in the last quarter of the twentieth century from manufacturing to service activities. There are several reasons for this restructuring. First, the long-established industrialised countries such as Germany, the USA, Japan and the UK have faced increasingly intense competition as more countries have industrialised. Second, productivity, or output per worker, has increased in manufacturing industries
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Introduction

This unit considers four ways in which some social scientists have claimed that there might be a ‘new economy’ coming in to being: the switch from manufacturing to services, globalisation, new technology and flexible labour markets. The good and bad points of economic change, its benefits and costs, are discussed. For example, what does it mean for people trying desparately to balnace the urgent demands of work and life?

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

3.2 By medium

We can divide texts up by the medium in which they appear. This is a broad division that is technologically based. It may seem excessively obvious, but it can be quite revealing. For example, different media have different periodicities (frequency of appearances) – most magazines appear weekly or monthly, while newspapers are weekly or daily. Episodes of television programmes are most commonly also weekly or daily, but films appear on a different basis altogether, since, like books or CDs t
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • illustrate how cities can be represented as dangerous places to live;

  • give examples of the place of crime in representations of cities.


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The Genius of Mozart (Part 8 of 18)
"The Genius of Mozart" (2004)
Episode 2: "A Passion for the Stage"

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Systems modelling
Maps and plans, architects and engineers, drawings, graphs and tables: all are models we use in everyday life. This unit will introduce you to the modelling process enabling you to recognise that systems models may be used in different ways as part of a process for: improving understanding of a situation; identifying problems or formulating opportunities and supporting decision making.Author(s): Creator not set

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Modelling object-oriented software – an introduction
How do you model a software system? This unit will help you to work through the processes necessary to produce a conceptual model, by analysing the requirements document to identify classes and associations appropriate for modelling the system domain, together with their respective attributes and multiplicities. First published
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Systems thinking: Understanding sustainability
In the increasingly complex world of change and uncertainty, particularly in the context of climate change, the notion of sustainability is often raised as the key issue for decision making in the 21st Century. But 'sustainability' is itself a contentious term and often used in misguided ways, depending on the context of use. This unit introduces ways in which systems thinking can help support processes of decision making among stakeholders with different, often contrasting, perspectives on sust
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Summary

  1. We discussed forms of data and processes relevant to an electronic till in a supermarket. In particular, we introduced the idea of a sequence of data items.

  2. A number of fundamental forms of data were introduced. We distinguished two types of number: integers (positive or negative whole numbers, or 0), and real numbers (thought of as decimal numbers and approximated in computers as floating point numbers). Characters may be thought of as sym
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2.2.3 Positive integers: converting denary numbers to binary

If computers encode the denary numbers of the everyday world as binary numbers, then clearly there needs to be conversion from denary to binary and vice versa. You have just seen how to convert binary numbers to denary, because I did a couple of examples to show you how binary numbers ‘work’. But how can denary numbers be converted to binary? I'll show you by means of an example.

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Acknowledgements

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Text

Revell, P., ‘Miniature computers are adding up to fun’, Guardian Online
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5.1 Introduction

The word usability has cropped up a few times already in this unit. In the context of biometric identification, usability referred to the smoothness of enrolment and other tasks associated with setting up an identification system. A system that produced few false matches during enrolment of applicants was described as usable.

Another meaning of usability is related to the ease of use of an interface. Although this meaning of the term is often used in the context of computer inter
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References

Eyewitness Travel Guide (1997) Amsterdam. London, Dorling Kindersley. pp. 120-1.
Götz, V. (1998) Color and Type for the Screen. Berlin, RotoVision (in collaboration with Grey Press).
Hartley, J. (1994) Designing Instructional Text. 3rd edn. London, Kogan Page.
Michaelis, P. R. and Wiggins, R. H. (1982) ‘A human
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1.3.4 How to use colour to good effect

The effective use of colour is a complex and technical area. In Table 2 we have listed some general guidelines.

Table 2: Making e
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