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5.1.7 Literature

Drabble, M. (ed.) (1995) The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Oxford, Oxford University Press.


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5.1.6 Languages and Law

Your course will recommend appropriate dictionaries, grammars and reference books.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should:

  • be able to discuss why writing is so important;

  • have an understanding of and be able to use critically the main criteria of good essay-writing;

  • be aware of the basic technical and stylistic considerations involved in writing.


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1.3.5 Stage 3: Details

Now examine the piece in more detail. Read it again slowly making sure that you are able to follow its logic from sentence to sentence. Are there any obvious gaps in the argument or any unsubstantiated statements or assertions? Do you agree with its argument or are you attracted by its message? Is its appeal principally emotional or analytical, or both? Analyse the piece in terms of what it doesn't say as well as what it does, and look for its hidden message. What is the scope of the sample o
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Starting with psychology
The most ‘important and greatest puzzle’ we face as humans is ourselves (Boring, 1950, p. 56). Humans are a puzzle – one that is complex, subtle and multi-layered, and it gets even more complicated as we evolve over time and change in different contexts. When answering the question ‘What makes us who we are?’, psychologists put forward a range of explanations about why people feel, think and behave the way they do. Just when psychologists seem to understand one bit of ‘who we are’
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2.2 Knowing about unseen information

An obvious difference between hearing and seeing is that the former is extended in time, while the latter extends over space. So, for example, we can listen to a spoken sentence coming from one place, but it takes some time to hear it all. In contrast, a written sentence is spread over an area (of paper, say) but, as long as it is reasonably short, it can be seen almost instantly. Nevertheless, seeing does require some finite time to capture and analyse the information. This process can be ex
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1.5 Summary of Section 1

The auditory system is able to process sounds in such a way that, although several may be present simultaneously, it is possible to focus upon the message of interest. However, in experiments on auditory attention, there have been contradictory results concerning the fate of the unattended material:

  • The auditory system processes mixed sounds in such a way that it is possible to focus upon a single wanted message.

  • Unattended material a
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1.3 Attending to sounds

From the earlier sections, you will appreciate that the auditory system is able to separate different, superimposed sounds on the basis of their different source directions. This makes it possible to attend to any one sound without confusion, and we have the sensation of moving our ‘listening attention’ to focus on the desired sound. For example, as I write this I can listen to the quiet hum of the computer in front of me, or swing my attention to the bird song outside the window to my ri
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1.2 Disentangling sounds

If you are still feeling aggrieved about the shortcomings of evolution, then you might take heart from the remarkable way in which the auditory system has evolved so as to avoid a serious potential problem. Unlike our eyes, our ears cannot be directed so as to avoid registering material that we wish to ignore; whatever sounds are present in the environment, we must inevitably be exposed to them. In a busy setting such as a party we are swamped by simultaneous sounds – people in different pa
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1.1 Introduction

To cover some of the concept of attention (we have only a unit, and there are whole books on the subject) I shall follow an approximately historical sequence, showing how generations of psychologists have tackled the issues and gradually refined and developed their theories. You will discover that initially there seemed to them to be only one role for attention, but that gradually it has been implicated in an ever-widening range of mental processes. As we work through the subject, two basic i
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3 Sharing the workload

The new terms of reference for the premises committee of one nursery school were clear. The committee would meet three times: in October, February and June. In October they would tour the school with the headteacher and agree what improvements could be made to the school environment. In February they would check how the work was progressing, identify the money that was to be available from the budget in April, and agree thei
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1.2.3 Legal requirements

The third factor is legal obligation. In many countries it is unlawful to discriminate against disabled people as employees, as students, and as consumers of goods and services. Legislation requires employers, education establishments, and providers of goods and services to make ‘reasonable adjustments’ to avoid discriminating against disabled people.

In practice this means that, where ‘reasonable’, websites, software, buildings and other entities involved in employment, educati
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2 How active should young people be?

Physical activity in childhood has a range of benefits, including healthy growth and development, maintenance of a healthy weight, mental well-being and learning social skills. It is particularly important for bone health, increasing bone mineral density and preventing osteoporosis in later life. Although there is only indirect evidence (compared with adults) linking physical inactivity in children with childhood health outc
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1 Myths and misconceptions

Physical education provides opportunities for pupils to be creative, competitive and to face up to different challenges as individuals, and in groups and teams. It promotes positive attitudes towards active and healthy lifestyles.

(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2004) www.nc.uk.net/esd/teaching/pe/index.htm)

What does this mean for PE teachers? How can PE teachers effectively help to
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Introduction

In this unit, aimed at teachers of Physical Education, we begin by looking at some of the common misconceptions relating to fitness and activity levels together with accepted definitions of these concepts. We consider how active young people should actually be, and discuss how PE teachers can ensure they are making an effective contribution to this area of public health.


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Acknowledgements

Author

This unit was originally prepared for TeachandLearn.net by Zoe Macdonald who is Head of RE at Bourne Grammar School in Lincolnshire. She is active in the delivery of in-school training on a variety of subjects, and lectures annually at the St Gabriel’s National Conference for RE teachers.

Other acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see
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References

Hughes, M. (1991) Closing the Learning Gap, Network Educational Press Ltd.
Lucas, W. (2001) Power Up Your Mind, Nicholas Brearley Publishing.
Rose, C. (1985) Accelerated Learning, Accelerated Learning Systems Ltd.
UNESCO (1977) Suggestive, accelerative learning and teaching: A manual of classroom procedures base
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5. Learning styles

There are now numerous resources available on learning styles or multiple intelligences, and their implications for classroom learning. At the simplest level, what teachers need to recognise is that not all of their students will prefer to learn in the same way. Although everybody is capable of working in most learning styles, we will all have our preferred learning style in which we learn most efficiently.

Click on "view document" below and read the brief definitions of visual, auditor
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4. Music and learning

‘In music the sages found pleasure, and saw that it could be used to make the hearts of the people good. Because of the deep influence it exerts on man, and the change it produces in manners and customs, the ancient kings caused it to be one of the subjects of instruction.’

Confucius (551–479 BCE)

Dr Georgi Lozanov has done considerable research into the effects of music on learning,
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3. Review and recall

Learning cannot take place without memory, and we expect our students to be able to process, synthesise and recall a vast amount of information every day. There are, however, some simple strategies that we can employ to help them to do this.

Firstly consider the natural concentration span. A rough guide is that concentration span in minutes is equivalent to chronological age in years, +/− 2 minutes. That means that even our most attentive 18 year olds need a short concentration break
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