1.1 Introduction

War memorials are artefacts which commemorate loss – of individuals, armies or battalions – in war and have particular symbolic meaning and form.

Exercise 1

We could define texts as ‘things that people have made or produce
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should have:

  • an understanding of ‘texts’ that is not restricted to the written word;

  • an understanding of war memorials as text;

  • a basic ability to interpret a visual text.


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References

Bloom, H. (1997) Omens of the Millenium, Riverhead Books.
Crane, T. (2001) The Elements of Mind, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Damasio, A. (1994) Descartes's Error, New York, Grosset/Putman.
Dennett, D. (1996) Kinds of Minds, New York, Basic Books.
Descartes,
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Introduction

This unit introduces some philosophical questions concerning the nature of the mind and mental phenomena, such as thoughts, perceptions and emotions. The unit considers what is involved in having a mind, whether there are different kinds of minds, and whether there is some characteristic that is shared by all mental phenomena.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course<
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this section you should be able to:

  • read closely – analyse a passage from the play;

  • examine genre – what kind of play is Doctor Faustus?

  • consider themes – what are the main themes or issues explored in the play?

  • read historically – what are some of the connections between Doctor Faustus and the historical period in which it was written?

  • read biographically – what, if any, ins
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Introduction

This unit is on Christopher Marlowe's famous play Doctor Faustus. It considers the play in relation to Marlowe's own reputation as a rule-breaker and outsider and asks whether the play criticises or seeks to arouse audience sympathy for its protagonist, who sells his soul to the devil in exchange for 24 years of power and pleasure. Is this pioneering drama a medieval morality play or a tragedy?

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University courseAuthor(s): The Open University

5.3 Irregular and unorthodox practitioners

In the twentieth century, unlicensed practitioners continued to be an important source of medical advice. Faced with illness, people of all classes consulted relatives, neighbours with a reputation for curing or the local retail chemist – who had no medical training but a wide knowledge of therapies. Substantial numbers of patients from all classes chose to consult unorthodox practitioners who offered ‘natural’ forms of healing. Herbal medicine remained popular among working-class patie
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2 Patterns of disease

Before looking at how people dealt with ill health, you need to know what sort of medical conditions were prevalent. Between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, all over Europe, the prevailing pattern of mortality changed. Infectious diseases, which had killed huge numbers of people, were gradually brought under control. As life expectancy increased, degenerative diseases, associated with old age, began to cause more deaths. However, although people were living longer, they actually spent
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7 New Lanark as showpiece and text

Owen's partnership of 1814, consisting of Bentham and other enlightened individuals, mainly wealthy Quakers, paved the way for the rapid implementation of the innovations spelled out in the Statement of 1812 and subsequently in the essays. Two of the partners, William Allen (1770–1843), a chemist and businessman, and the wealthy and philanthropic John Walker (1767–1824), Owen's closest associate, were interested in education and had encouraged the establishment of schools adopting
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6.5 Third Essay

By the time Owen got round to writing Essays Three and Four, probably at the end of 1813 or the beginning of 1814, events had moved on, particularly the success of his new partnership in purchasing the mills and placing him again in full control. But his presentation increasingly leaves much to be desired, and here I have tried to focus on Owen's key proposals. Notice another homily, again derived from Enlightenment notions, and widely adopted by Owen's followers, that ‘truth must ultimatel
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6.4 Second Essay

As a preliminary to the Second Essay, Owen says that he will enhance further his discussion of his underlying principles and then begin to explain to his readers how they can be applied in practice. Notice too the prologue for the Second Essay (p. 113) , quoting Vansittart's view that ‘if we cannot reconcile, all opinions, let us endeavour to unite all hearts’, a ringing phrase often quoted by Owen in later publications and widely adopted as one of the most popular Owenite homilies
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6.1 Overview

Having looked at the contexts and background, let us turn now to the essays themselves. I have used the edition of 1837, which was based on the second edition of the complete work, dating from 1816. However, it is worth noting that Owen made revisions and additions to subsequent English, French and American versions, so the reader will come across occasional references and allusions to developments which are out of context with the period when the essays were first written. I shall draw to yo
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5.3 Further enlightened influences: Godwin, Place and Mill

What transpired during the first of many visits to London helps to explain the background to Owen's writing of the essays and shows how he set the concept of character formation into a larger frame, drawing extensively on the ideas and help of others. Ostensibly seeking new partners, he naturally sought out those likely to be sympathetic and rich enough to invest in New Lanark when it came on the market. Quite whom he contacted initially we do not know, but Lancaster and his rich Quaker suppo
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5.2 Owen in London 1812–14

Owen's visits to London, where he worked on the essays, coincided with the vital closing years of the Napoleonic Wars. He arrived in the metropolis to find it seething with news of momentous events on the Continent, especially Wellington's victories in the Peninsula and Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, of the course of the war in the United States, and, closer to home, of a series of political crises made more acute by the growing unrest in the country. While the international situation remain
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4.6 New Lanark and the Falls of Clyde

Let us take a moment to consider another aspect of New Lanark that was potentially of great importance to any propaganda campaign built around it. Big factories employing large numbers of youngsters were still unusual and so objects of curiosity. But New Lanark was unique given its proximity to the Falls of Clyde, the most spectacular waterfalls in Britain. By our period, the falls (see Author(s): The Open University

3.3.1 The geography of the Classical world

We would now like to give you the opportunity to gain some background knowledge of places and regions in the Classical world. The aim is to give you a grasp of this geography so that as you learn more about the Classical world, you will be able to locate the places you study and put them in relation to one another without having to consult a map all the time.

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4.1 Using memories to order narrative

The philosopher John Locke made the assertion that individual identity is inextricably linked to memory – we are only what we remember being. Memory is a central part of how we think of ourselves, and indeed a central strand of what we might know. Memory is not simply a mechanical process. It works in various ways and you will use it in various ways in your writing. If you study A215 Creative Writing, the course from which this unit was extracted, you will have the opportunity to think abou
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3.4 The misuse of the concept of positive liberty

One of the main claims that Berlin makes in ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ is a historical one. It is that positive theories of freedom, or perversions of them, have been more frequently used as instruments of oppression than have negative ones. These positive theories typically rely on a split between a ‘higher’ and a ‘lower’ self, or between a ‘rational’ and an ‘empirical’ self as Berlin sometimes puts it. Coercion is justified on the grounds that it leads to a realisation of
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6.2 A sense of sumptuous hedonism

In the sphere of painting, decoration and architecture, Orientalist schemes of decoration, which were all the rage in the eighteenth century among those who sought a more colourful and sumptuous life, attained a particularly florid mode of expression in the early nineteenth century. This was a considerable development from the early Enlightenment Rococo, which had included Oriental subjects with graceful curves and conventional, theatre backdrop landscapes designed to complement elegant gold
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5.2 Sardanapalus – passion and futility

For many of Delacroix’s Romantic contemporaries, versed in Byronic despondency and melancholic ruminations on the futility and transitory nature of worldly pleasure, Sardanapalus expressed the condition of ennui, (melancholy or listlessness) – a kind of inner emptiness, languor, stultification and world-weariness. (The term ennui had been used in medieval French to signify profound sadness, disgust and personal anguish from the seventeenth century onwards it was used
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