6: Summary

All objects, irrespective of their mass, experience the same acceleration g when falling freely under the influence of gravity at the same point on the Earth. Close to the Earth's surface, g=9.8 m s−2. The weight of an object is the force F g due to gravity acting on the object, and for an object with mass m the weight is given by F g=mg.

If the height of an object of mass m changes by Δh, the ch
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should know:

  • All objects, irrespective of their mass, experience the same acceleration g when falling freely under the influence of gravity at the same point on the Earth. The weight of an object is the force F g due to gravity acting on the object, and for an object with mass m the weight is given by F g=mg.

  • If the height of an object of mass m changes by Δh, the
    Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

In this unit, we describe the theory of evolution by natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin in his book, first published in 1859, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. We will look at natural selection as Darwin did, taking inheritance for granted, but ignoring the mechanisms underlying it.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extracted from Discovering science (S103) whic
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7.4.2 Assumptions within models

  • recognise that theoretical models carry in-built assumptions that limit the contexts to which the theoretical models can be applied;

  • recognise that the application of theoretical models to a particular context often involves approximations concerning the phenomenon under study.


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8 Magistrates

Magistrates have been a part of the English legal system since the Justice of the Peace Act 1361. Their main role has always been in the criminal justice system. There are now over 30,000 magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace) hearing over one million criminal cases per yea
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3.6 The law of negligence

We will now explore the law of negligence, using a Y166 family example.

Activity 4: The law of negligence

0 hours 20 minutes

Read the box below and answer the question that follows.


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3.3 Members of the UK Parliament

Before we look at what an MP does, have a go at this activity.

Activity 2: The work of a Member of the UK Parliament

0 hours 10 minutes

Take a few moments to think about what you have read s
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4.13 The disadvantages of delegated legislation

The disadvantages of delegated legislation include the following:


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4.11.2 Substantial ultra vires

This is where the delegated legislation goes beyond what Parliament intended.

In R v Secretary of State for Education and Employment, ex parte National Union of Teachers (2000) QBD, the High Court determined that an SI concerning teachers’ pay and appraisal arrangements went beyond the powers provided under the Education Act 1996. Therefore, the delegated legislation was declared to be ultra vires on substantive grounds.


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3.1 Types of Bill

Figure 7
Figure 7 The Houses of Parliament.

An Act of Parliament starts off as a Bill. A Bill is a proposal for a new piece of legislation that
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7.1 Reserved and devolved matters

As stated earlier, the UK Parliament can still legislate on reserved matters and also on devolved matters, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament. This section looks at the law making process at Westminster. It is a very different process, which involves both the Houses of the Westminster Parliament.

An Act of the UK Parliament also starts off as a Bill, which, if approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, will become an Act of the Westminster Parliame
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6.7 Royal Assent

Section 32 of the Scotland Act provides that a Bill, once passed, must be submitted for Royal Assent. This is done after a period of four weeks. During that time, the Bill is subject to legal challenge by the Advocate General for Scotland, the Lord Advocate or the Attorney General, and may also be subject to an order made by the Secretary of State. The Presiding Officer may, however, submit the Bill for Royal Assent after less than four weeks if notified by all three Law Officers and the Secr
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3.3 How is law made?

If you believe that laws are unjust in some way – perhaps because you regard them as being in conflict with our natural rights or consider that the rights they bestow do not adequately serve our interests – that does not alter their status as laws. The content of the law is decided by recognised law-making bodies in accordance with the rules of the constitution and the remedy for ‘unjust’ laws in a liberal democracy like the UK is to campaign to change them via the democratic process.
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1 The importance of evidence

The gathering, presentation and assessment of evidence are crucial and indeed inescapable parts of the practice of social science, hence the crucial role of evidence in the circuit of knowledge (see Figure 1).

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