8 Magistrates

Magistrates have been a part of the English legal system since the Justice of the Peace Act 1361. Their main role has always been in the criminal justice system. There are now over 30,000 magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace) hearing over one million criminal cases per yea
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3.6 The law of negligence

We will now explore the law of negligence, using a Y166 family example.

Activity 4: The law of negligence

0 hours 20 minutes

Read the box below and answer the question that follows.


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3.3 Members of the UK Parliament

Before we look at what an MP does, have a go at this activity.

Activity 2: The work of a Member of the UK Parliament

0 hours 10 minutes

Take a few moments to think about what you have read s
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4.13 The disadvantages of delegated legislation

The disadvantages of delegated legislation include the following:


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4.11.2 Substantial ultra vires

This is where the delegated legislation goes beyond what Parliament intended.

In R v Secretary of State for Education and Employment, ex parte National Union of Teachers (2000) QBD, the High Court determined that an SI concerning teachers’ pay and appraisal arrangements went beyond the powers provided under the Education Act 1996. Therefore, the delegated legislation was declared to be ultra vires on substantive grounds.


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3.1 Types of Bill

Figure 7
Figure 7 The Houses of Parliament.

An Act of Parliament starts off as a Bill. A Bill is a proposal for a new piece of legislation that
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7.1 Reserved and devolved matters

As stated earlier, the UK Parliament can still legislate on reserved matters and also on devolved matters, with the agreement of the Scottish Parliament. This section looks at the law making process at Westminster. It is a very different process, which involves both the Houses of the Westminster Parliament.

An Act of the UK Parliament also starts off as a Bill, which, if approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, will become an Act of the Westminster Parliame
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6.7 Royal Assent

Section 32 of the Scotland Act provides that a Bill, once passed, must be submitted for Royal Assent. This is done after a period of four weeks. During that time, the Bill is subject to legal challenge by the Advocate General for Scotland, the Lord Advocate or the Attorney General, and may also be subject to an order made by the Secretary of State. The Presiding Officer may, however, submit the Bill for Royal Assent after less than four weeks if notified by all three Law Officers and the Secr
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3.3 How is law made?

If you believe that laws are unjust in some way – perhaps because you regard them as being in conflict with our natural rights or consider that the rights they bestow do not adequately serve our interests – that does not alter their status as laws. The content of the law is decided by recognised law-making bodies in accordance with the rules of the constitution and the remedy for ‘unjust’ laws in a liberal democracy like the UK is to campaign to change them via the democratic process.
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1 The importance of evidence

The gathering, presentation and assessment of evidence are crucial and indeed inescapable parts of the practice of social science, hence the crucial role of evidence in the circuit of knowledge (see Figure 1).

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3.2 Magnetic field in a perfect conductor

When discussing the Meissner effect in Subsection 2.3, we argued qualitatively that a material that just had the property of zero resistance – a perfect conductor rather than a superconductor – would maintain a constant magnetic field in its interior, and would not expel any field that was present when the material became superconducting. We shall now show how that conclusion follows from an application of Maxwell's equations to a perfect conductor. We can then see what additional assumpt
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4.3 Phenotypic changes that appeared without being selected

As well as these behavioural changes, many of the selected foxes had unusual white markings (Figures 13c and d). The first colour change that the Russian investigators noted in their foxes was a white ‘star’ on the forehead similar to that of other domesticated mammals (Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course focuses on the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide, and explore what you can do to lighten those emissions to help reduce the rate of climate change. You will assess your ‘carbon footprint’ and see what actions you and, if relevant, other household members could take to lighten that footprint. You will also better understand which actions are more and less effective, and the scope and limits of what individuals can do at the personal and household le
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3.4 A note on suspense

By raising various expectations in the reader's mind, a writer can create an atmosphere of suspense – the desire to turn the page and find out what happens next. How much will the story follow the reader's expectations, how much will it confound them? In this way, suspense is
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References

Lewis, G. and Phoenix, A. (2004) ‘Race ‘ethnicity’ and identity’ in Questioning Identity, K. Woodward (ed.), London, Routledge/The Open University.
The Runnymede Bulletin (1999) ‘Black deaths in police custody’, no.319, September, pp.8–9.
Sardar, Z., Ravetz, J. and Van Loon, B. (1999) Introducing Mathematics, Cambridge, Icon Books.

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Our focus turns back to the layout of the three main pages in our app.  In this lesson we learn about the major properties of the GridView and how they affect the flexible layout and presentation of the data on our pages.
 
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