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Machten, exponenten en logaritmen
Definitie en voorbeelden van machten, exponenten, logaritmen, machtsfuncties, exponentiele functies en logaritmische functies (met enkele opgaven en uitwerkingen).
Author(s): drs. J.S. Lodder

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Rights not set

Can Government's Finances Be Compared to a Household's?

Politicians often try to empathize with struggling Americans by promising to cut government spending, "just like regular households in tough times." This simile evokes different reactions depending on one's economic views. Keynesians think it's reckless, proponents of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) think it's a
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The Economics of Abundance

[Excerpted from The Critics of Keynesian Economics (1960)]

A situation in which abundant unused reserves of all kinds of resources (including all intermediate products) exist may occasionally prevail in the depths of a depression. But it is certainly not a norma
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4.2.3 Restating the problem

If your analysis of the problem and its possible causes is thorough, it should enable you to rewrite the problem statement to include the causes. If you can clarify your objective by defining a desired end-state, you are more likely to produce a good solution.

4.2.2 Identifying possible causes

The possible causes of a problem can be written onto Post-it notes or similar, and arranged on a flipchart or whiteboard in the form of a ‘fishbone diagram’. This can be a useful method to help a group to examine causes of problems, and perhaps also to clarify your own thoughts. Figure 4 shows a fishbone diagram produced by Midway Airlines to analyse the causes of delayed flight departures.

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4.2.1 Defining the problem

It is vital that the problem is identified correctly. If the risk management system is working properly, the problem should not have hit you completely out of the blue, and you should already have some idea what it is about. But, although there is often a temptation to skip the definition phase and go straight to causes and solutions, it is important to be as clear as possible about the nature of the problem as seen from different perspectives, by answering questions such as those below.

<
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4.2 Problem solving

Involving the whole team in the problem-solving process shows that you value their experience and knowledge in devising a solution. It may also be appropriate to involve other stakeholders and/or the project sponsor. If problems are solved jointly there is usually wider ownership of the solutions and their implications; and, if more resources are agreed to be needed or new procedures are put into place, there is also likely to be more support.

Problem solving can be broken down into a s
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4.1 Dealing with risk

Projects are high-risk activities, and it is in the early stages that uncertainty is greatest. Some of this uncertainty can be removed during design and planning, but in practice a great deal may remain. Risks can be ranked according to their probability and likely impact, and a risk log can be kept detailing this information. Throughout the progress of the project you will need to review your risk log, to check whether any risks have become either more or less probable, and whether any new r
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3.3 Managing conflict

Conflict can emerge when a project is thought to be absorbing scarce resources or shifting the balance of power.

The schedule for project meetings provides a framework for communication while the project is in progress. Meetings with team members on a one-to-one basis, in addition to group meetings, will help them to feel supported and could be an opportunity to provide coaching when necessary.


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3.2 Communicating with the project team and other stakeholders

In project management, the quality of communication can make the difference between achieving your objectives and falling short of them. Projects often fail not because of problems with the work itself, but because the people involved are not working together effectively.

Project managers communicate in diverse ways: face-to-face or by telephone, in written and electronic forms, through presentations and reports. The purpose of communication is primarily to explain to others what has be
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3.1 Introduction

Communication on project work is the glue that holds everything together!

(Young 1998)

The success of a project is principally determined by its stakeholders, including sponsors and project team, and you can only know how you are doing by keeping channels of communication open. In this section, we examine briefly some of the issues involved in communicating with all people involved with the
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2.8 Controlling changes to the project

Sometimes an addition or change to the project will be requested. This can be difficult for those who manage the project, because you will want both to maintain good relations with your client and to protect your profit margin and budget for resources. The first step is to assess the extent to which this will cause a need for additional time or resources. Perhaps the change can be accommodated in the project plan within the existing time-scale and budget, for example by altering some of the t
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2.7 Tracking progress

Gantt charts and critical path diagrams are useful for tracking project activity and for making necessary changes to the project plan. Project-planning software may also be used; the original chart is kept as the standard and any modifications are superimposed.

The example of the joint strategy for commissioning training services demonstrates how tracking produced information that led to a change of plan.

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2.6 Maintaining balance

Monitoring is also concerned with achieving a balance of the three dimensions of the project:

  • cost – the resources available;

  • time – the schedule;

  • quality – the scope and appropriateness of the outputs or outcomes.

Many of the difficulties in implementing a project are caused by poor time management. This will have a direct effect on the costs of the project, as well as on the quality of what is
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2.5 Project meetings schedule

You need to decide early on what meetings are essential to the monitoring process. All your stakeholders will expect to receive reports at regular intervals, whether formally or informally. So you need to ask yourself:

  • Who needs to be informed?

  • About what?

    How often?

  • By what means?

Effective communication involves giving information, collecting information and listening to people. To ensure the
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2.4 Project status reports

Project status reports are regular and formal. You will need to decide how often they are necessary – depending on the size and nature of the project, it might be weekly, monthly or quarterly. In some situations reports might need to be hourly, if a problem is causing serious concern and has the potential to delay progress seriously. Daily reports might be necessary if there are implications for arranging work for the following day.

The degree of risk involved, and the time it would t
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2.3 Interdependency of systems

The control system approach to project control provides a simple overview of the process of planning, measuring against the plan and taking action to bring things back into line if necessary. This suggests that events will move in a fairly linear way. Life is messier than this, however, and every time that something happens it will have an impact on everything else around it – so the interdependency of systems is important to consider.

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2.2.2 Milestones

Milestones are measuring points that are used in reviewing the progress of a project. Milestones can be set in different ways, to reflect different purposes. For example, milestones are often used to provide an agenda for regular meetings which review the project. These reviews should take place, weekly, monthly or quarterly, depending on the nature of the project.

Another approach is to set the milestones to reflect key phases of the project. Sometimes such milestones are established i
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2.2.1 Gathering information

Successful control of a project depends on the flow of information, so it is important to have systems in place to make sure that you get feedback on what is happening. If the project team is meeting regularly to review progress, monitoring becomes more dynamic and changes to the plan can be achieved by consensus. Involving the team not only helps to keep everyone on target – it also builds commitment.

Monitoring is the most important activity during the implementation phase of a proj
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2.2 Monitoring as control

To control you need a plan that indicates what should happen and information that tells you what is actually happening. This is monitoring activity. By comparing the information about actual progress against the plan, you will be able to identify any variations.

Control is an important part of project management. It involves:

  • reporting the progress of the project against the plan;

  • analysing the reasons for variance between progr
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