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The Buggy Path to The Development of Programming Expertise
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Author(s): Pea Roy D.,Soloway Elliot,Spohrer Jim C.

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Technology and pedagogy for collaborative problem solving as a context for learning
This workshop, sponsored jointly by CSCW'92 and the Centre for Applied Cognitive Science at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), was organized to bring together researchers with interests in the emerging area of Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL). It was held at OISE on the weekend preceding CSCW'92 and was attended by 27 participants from academia and industry.
Author(s): Koschmann Timothy,Newman Denis,Woodruff Earl,Pea R

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The Grid Shared Desktop for CSCL
The Grid Shared Desktop (GSD) is a collaborative environment that provides a multidimensional humans-to-machine-to-humans interface by the means of multiples cleverly intricated desktops. The GSD is a platform independent solution that benefits of the intrinsic advantages of the Grid technology such as scalability and security. In order to verify that our GSD solution meets CSCL requirements, we have conducted experiments in the context of the ELeGI project. As part of the project use cases, the
Author(s): Cerri Stefano A.,Crubézy Monica,Dugénie Pascal,J

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COML (Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language) and Scenarios Designer: Toolsets to Facilitate Col
In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software using a
Author(s): Niramitranon Jitti,Sharples Mike,Greenhalgh Chris

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Computational Mathetics: Towards a Science of Learning Systems Design
The aim of this report is simply to help put the design of computer-based systems to support learning on a more scientific footing. The aim is simply stated, but its achievement is more difficult. For one thing, it is not at all obvious what "more scientific" means in this context. However, it is essential for AI-ED research to take better account of the concepts of 'situation', 'context', 'community', 'discourse', 'social learning', and so on, but these terms need to be defined, not used as man
Author(s): Self John

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A device helping learners to self-assess themselves
In this paper, we introduce the architecture of an environment, which aims at helping learners in their self-assessment process. We show how we integrated three systems to build an experimental device based on this architecture. We then present the experiment we conducted to show the utility of this device and also to validate our hypothesis that it is easier for learners to self-assess themselves from an exercises-point of view than from a knowledge-point of view.
Author(s): Eyssautier Carole,Jean-Daubias Stéphanie

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Combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis for the study of classroom social inter
Studying and evaluating real experiences that promote active and collaborative learning is a crucial field in CSCL. Major issues that remain unsolved deal with the merging of qualitative and quantitative methods and data, especially in educational settings that involve both physical and computer-supported collaboration. In this paper we present a mixed evaluation method that combines traditional sources of data with computer logs, and integrates quantitative statistics, qualitative data analysis
Author(s): Martinez Alejandra,Dimitriadis Yannis,Rubia-Avi Ba

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Pedagogical approaches for technology-integrated science teaching
The two separate projects described have examined how teachers exploit computer-based technologies in supporting learning of science at secondary level. This paper examines how pedagogical approaches associated with these technological tools are adapted to both the cognitive and structuring resources available in the classroom setting. Four teachers participated in the first study, undertaken as part of the InterActive Education project in Bristol; all of them used multimedia simulations in thei
Author(s): Hennessy Sara,Wishart Jocelyn,Whitelock Denise,Dea

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Reuse of Digital Learning Resources in Collaborative Learning Environments
With background in the proliferation of Information- and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in educational institutions, there is a growing interest in deploying ICT that complies with specifications and standards for learning technologies in these institutions. A key to obtaining the benefits of cost-efficiency and quality that motivate this interest is reuse of digital learning resources. Despite the significant efforts being made in design and deployment of learning technology standards facili
Author(s): Berge Ola

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Mixing Microworld and Cas Features in Building Computer Systems that Help Students Learn Algebra
We present the design principles for a new kind of computer system that helps students learn algebra. The fundamental idea is to have a system based on the microworld paradigm that allows students to make their own calculations, as they do with paper and pencil, without being obliged to use commands, and to verify the correctness of these calculations. This requires an advanced editor for algebraic expressions, an editor for algebraic reasoning and an algorithm that calculates the equivalence of
Author(s): Nicaud Jean-François,Bouhineau Denis,Chaachoua Ha

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APLUSIX, A learning environment for algebra, actual use and benefits
After a presentation of the APLUSIX system, a learning environment for formal algebra, we describe the use of this system in a French class of grade 10, in particular a sequence devoted to factorisations and equations, and an analysis of the students' work during this sequence. This study exhibits the influence of the tools provided by the software on the construction of competences in algebra. We also report the opinion of a teacher who used the APLUSIX system during one year with this class.
Author(s): Chaachoua Hamid,Nicaud Jean-François,Bronner Alai

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NLP-based scripting for CALL activities
This article focuses on the development of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools for Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). After identifying the inherent limitations of NLP-free tools, we describe the general framework of Mirto, an NLP-based authoring platform under construction in our laboratory, and organized into four distinct layers: functions, scripts, activities and scenarios. Through several examples, we explain how Mirto's architecture allows to implement state-of-the-art NLP fun
Author(s): Antoniadis Georges,Echinard Sandra,Kraif Olivier,L

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Educational Knowledge Based Environment
In this paper a knowledge based environment is represented which facilitates easy creation and preparation of wide range of educational software. The heart of the environment is the knowledge representation tool providing a hybrid knowledge representation formalism combining frames, production rules and logic. The environment is built on the basis of the logic programming language Prolog.
Author(s): Dimitrova Galina,Stefanov Krassen

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An Evolutionary Approach to Prototyping Pedagogical Agents: From Simulation to Integrated System
We have developed and integrated software agents with two educational groupware systems (TeamWave Workplace and FLE), using evolutionary prototyping and empiricalbased design as development techniques. The resulting prototypes of pedagogical agents (CoPAS, SA-Agent and RuleEditor) provide learners and teachers with increasingly domain-specific support for distributed collaborative learning activities. Employing the evolutionary approach has enabled us to build and evaluate early prototypes of co
Author(s): Mørch Anders I.,Dolonen Jan A.,Nævdal Jan Eirik

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Didactical complexity of computational environments for the learning of mathematics
How a microworld is used by students is crucially influenced by the teacher, who has the responsibility of organising the classroom setting in which learning takes place. For this reason this paper focuses on the teacher as a manager of the learning situation, in relation to the students’ construction of meaning. A model of teaching which takes into account interactions between teacher, students and computer is outlined. Although the focus of this paper will be on the teacher, the teacher w
Author(s): Sutherland Rosamund,Balacheff Nicolas

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Designing for cross-cultural web-based knowledge building
This paper describes the iterative design of a web-based collaborative workspace used in educational practice, called WebReports. The system’s unique feature is that it allows participants to discuss mathematical and scientific concepts using programmed animated and interactive models of their ideas. Rather than focusing on the specific features of the collaboration tool, we analyze it as part of a constructionist activity system. We describe the context in which the system was developed an
Author(s): Mor Yishay,Tholander Jakob,Holmberg Jesper

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COW, une plate-forme de support d'exécution de scénarios pédagogiques.
Cet article présente un service de support d'exécution de scénarios pédagogiques conçu pour être intégré dans des plates-formes de formation existantes. Dans un premier temps nous prenons un point de vue ingénierie des plates-formes afin d'identifier les processus de conception et d'utilisation ainsi que les acteurs qui y sont associés. Dans un deuxième temps nous présentons les caractéristiques nécessaires que doit offrir notre service afin que les différents acteurs puissent gé
Author(s): Vantroys Thomas,Peter Yvan

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Socrates Mailbox - Rapport de Synthèse
Le projet Mailbox (1996-1998) est un projet d’observation sur deux ans qui s'est déroulé dans le cadre du sousprogramme Enseignement Ouvert et à Distance — Open and Distance Learning (EOD-ODL) du Programme SOCRATES de la Direction Générale XXII de la Commission européenne. Lancé en septembre 1996 ce projet a pour objectif d’étudier par une approche ethnographique l’utilisation des systèmes de communication électronique dans l'enseignement primaire et secondaire. Dix-sept école
Author(s): Magli Rossella,Barchechath Eric

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Cabri-géomètre as a mediator in the process of transition to proofs in open geometric situations.
In this paper I will present some findings of a teaching experiment on proof. Pupils were requested to produce conjectures in open geometric situations, to validate and, finally, to prove them. These activities took place in the microworld Cabri-Géomètre Our project was aimed to investigate the validity of the Cabri software as a mediator in the process discovering-conjecturing-proving. We found out that different dragging modalities are crucial for producing a shift from conjecturing to provi
Author(s): Olivero Federica

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Problem-solving and Web resources at tertiary level
We organised two experimental teaching designs involving web resources in two different French universities. In this paper, we describe these experiments and analyse the students' behaviours. Our aim is to observe whether the use of specific online resources favours the development of problem-solving activities.
Author(s): Cazes Claire,Gueudet Ghislaine,Hersant Magali,Vand

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