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Using the Central Limit Theorem
Alexander Holmes

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2.1.3 Angela Yih

Figure 2
Angela Yih

Angela Yih was working for Age Concern Scotland, based in Edinburgh. She had been heavily involved in a campaign, with other
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Why Study Crime and Punishment in the Hebrew Bible with Tarah Van De Wiele
Dr Carly Crouch and Tarah Van De Wiele discuss how crime – a wrong breaking a law – and the punishment of crime are dealt with in the Hebrew Bible /Old Testament. Crime and its punishment is, indeed, a key theme in this whole collection of texts. The most famous expression of this is the notion of ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’ (Ex 21:24; Lev 24:20; and Deut 19:21), known as the ‘law of talion’ (lex talionis) and this video notes how this is still a very powerful notion
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2.2 Children's violence

There has been a great deal of work done by psychologists on violence and aggression in children, looking at whether this is part of a normal and natural developmental process or whether it is pathological. Cole and Cole define aggression as ‘an act in which someone intentionally hurts another’ (1996, p. 406). They then split this definition to look at instrumental aggression which is committed in order to obtain a specific goal, and hostile aggression which is aimed at hurting another pe
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2.1 Violence towards children

For many children, the place where they experience most violence is in the home. Since the American paediatrician Henry Kempe first publicized the ‘battered child syndrome’ in 1962, the extent and nature of child abuse in the home has increasingly been recognized, and become the subject of research, legislation and social care practice. Following on from Kempe's claims that some children were routinely beaten and ill treated within their own families, other issues such as sexual abuse and
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1.1 Children and violence

Children are subject to many forms of adversity, for example, poverty or ill health. This unit examines another form of adversity that many children face, namely violence. This is a huge topic which can be tackled in a number of ways, for example by looking at the effects of war on children in Africa and Asia, physical or sexual abuse of children in the North, structural violence against children in the form of government policies, or symbolic forms of violence, looking at how images and repr
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this topic, you should be able to:

  • Discuss the ways in which children are the victims of violence and the multiple effects that violence has on children, encompassing not only physical pain and injury but also psychological damage.

  • Examine the various roles that children play in relation to violence, as victims, perpetrators, witnesses, colluders and peacemakers.

  • Analyse the relationship between children as victims of violence and a
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Introduction

Children are subject to many forms of adversity, for example, poverty or ill health. However, a significant form of adversity experienced by children in many different regions of the world is violence. The form of violence against children varies widely and is hugely disparate. In this unit, the focus is on three different environments where children experience violence: at home, among peers at school and in the wider society (in the context of armed conflicts). The text considers the experie
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying education, childhood & youth qualifications. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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3 Observation as a research tool

Observation is an important tool for all researchers and is frequently used to collect data in both quantitative and qualitative studies. There is much more to observation than just 'watching' and there are different types of observation techniques which can be employed. This is the focus of the two sections you are going to study in the next PDF.


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2 Small-scale quantitative research using observation

The second research paper that we are going to consider is a rather different study from the one you read by Coates. This chapter is by a Japanese researcher, Takei. It differs not only in terms of the topic – the emergence of signs in young deaf children as a precursor to the development of sign language – but more importantly in terms of the underlying methodology. Both studies are observational in that both Coates and Takei watched and recorded what children were doing in relatively na
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1 Small-scale qualitative research using observation

The first research paper for you to read in this course is a small-scale qualitative study that uses observation as its central approach. In her paper Coates explores whether or not there is a relationship between what children talk about when they are drawing and what they actually draw. You should read this paper in stages and reflect on each part in turn as suggested below.

Good titles should reflect the content of a research paper and should give you enough information to decide wh
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand observation as a research method

  • reflect on an experience of research studies with children which use observation as a data collection tool

  • understand the difference between a quantitative and qualitative approach to research

  • distinguish between describing and explaining in a research study.


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Introduction

This unit introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores the issue of observation of children and young people across the age range birth to 18 years using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Research with children and young people (EK310), which is no longer taught by
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References

Donaldson, M. (1978) Children's Minds, London, Fontana.
O'Connell, B. and Bretherton, I. (1984) ‘Toddlers’ play alone and with mother: the role of maternal guidance’, in Bretherton, I. (ed.) Symbolic Play: the development of social understanding, London, Academic Press.
Rogoff, B. (1990) Apprenticeship in Thinking: cognitive development in social context
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Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displaye
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The Swastika Epidemic: Jewish Politics & Human Rights in the 1960s
James Loeffler discusses the outbreak of global antisemitism in 1960 that prompted a United Nations investigation, resulting in the creation of the world's first international law against racism and the new ideological charge: "Zionism is racism." Speaker Biography: James Loeffler is a John W. Kluge Center Fellow at the Library of Congress. For transcript, captions, and more information, visit http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=6658
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Christopher Columbus Book of Privileges: The Claiming of a New World
John W. Hessler, Chet Van Duzer and Daniel De Simone discuss the book "Christopher Columbus Book of Privileges: Claiming of a New World." Speaker Biography: John W. Hessler is the curator of the Jay I. Kislak Collection for the Archaeology and History of the Early Americas at the Library. Speaker Biography: Daniel De Simone is a librarian at the Folger Library and a former curator of the Library's Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection. Speaker Biography: Chet Van Duzer is an invited research sch
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