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3.1.3 (C) Scientific methods and critical testing

Pupils should be taught that science uses the experimental method to test ideas, and, in particular, about certain basic techniques such as the use of controls. It should be made clear that the outcome of a single experiment is rarely sufficient to establish a knowledge claim.


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Learning outcomes

After completing this unit you will have a basic understanding of:

  • how the legal system in the UK works;

  • how laws are made in the UK;

  • some of the key players in UK law enforcement;

  • different ways of taking notes.


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6.2 Summary of Part E

In Part E you have studied:

  • the nature of pressure groups;

  • their composition;

  • how they operate;

  • examples of successful pressure groups;

  • the strengths and weaknesses of pressure groups.


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3.2 Forms of business organisation, or ‘business mediums’

If you were to carry on the business described in Activity 2, you would be carrying on business on your own. You would be what is called a ‘sole trader’. We will look at the consequences of being a sole trader in a little bit more detail in this section.

However, not all businesses are run by sole traders. There are several different ways in which
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1 Making, interpreting and applying rules

The aim of this unit is to introduce you to the processes of making, interpreting and applying rules.

We often think about social rules, most of which are unwritten and which we observe because we have a shared social understanding of what they are. We are now going to think about a different kind of rule. A definition of a rule (as opposed to a habit, custom or role) is shown in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

Privacy has long been recognised as one of the important human rights and this is reflected in religion and history. There are, for example, references to privacy in the Qur'an, the Bible and Jewish law. Privacy was also protected in classical Greece and ancient China.

The protection of privacy is seen as a way of drawing the line to indicate how far society can intrude into a person's affairs. Privacy encompasses an individual's liberty to choose how they lead their lives, freedom from
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1 Unit overview

This unit will look at the concept of rights in their broadest sense:

  • a freedom to do or be protected from something;

  • a claim to do or enjoy something;

  • a power to do something which affects others and not to be challenged over that use of power.

This concept of rights defines the position of an individual and does not consider collective or majority rights. As you may already know, the subject of righ
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8 Review of learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

Part A

  • understand the European Convention of Human Rights system of rights and the mechanism set up for their protection:

  • You have seen that the ECHR emerged from the social and political aftermath of the Second World War. It emphasises individual rights and tries to provide a balance between specific individual and collective rights. Som
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this Unit:

Ficure 2: Crown copyright
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1.9.1 Introduction

The main aim of this section is to show an application of distance-time graphs in the operation of a railway service.

You will need graph paper for this section.

This section uses the video ‘Single track minders’ to illustrate how distance-time graphs are drawn and interpreted by the timetable planners of a small railway company, and shows the role of this graphical technique in planning a flexible service. Graphical representations of journeys have been used for over a centur
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1.8.11 A mathematician’s journey: using the model for planning

By drawing a distance-time graph, Alice has predicted that she and Bob will pass on the stretch of road between Newcastle and Nottingham. Using the OU’s computer system, she sends an email message to Bob suggesting that they meet at a roadside restaurant about 275 km north of Milton Keynes (for Bob this will be 510 − 275 = 235km south of Edinburgh). Bob acknowledges her email and the meeting is set up.

Alice guesses they will probably stop for about 30 minutes. But what effect will
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1.8.7 Distance-time graphs: a mathematical story

Distance-time graphs are a means of replacing a description given in words by a mathematical description of the same event. What follows is a narrative account: that is, a description in the form of story about a bicycle ride. Read the story and then think about how you would use this account to produce a mathematical model of the ride in the form of a distance-time graph.

Sunday started a bit cloudy. The temperatu
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1.8.4 Distance, time and speed: an example

The Eurostar train service that connects London and Paris via the tunnel under the English Channel (la Manche) covers a distance of about 380 km in three hours in 1996. Assuming a constant speed, what would the distance-time graph of this journey look like?

Take the Gare du Nord (the Northern Station) in Paris as the start and measure time and distance from there. The vertical axis on Author(s): The Open University

4.3: The median

The median describes the central value of a set of data. Here, to be precise, we are discussing the sample median, in contrast to the population median.

The sample median

The median of a sample of data with an odd number of data values is defined to be the middle value of t
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4.5 Ellipse (0 < e < 1)

An ellipse with eccentricity e (where 0 < e < 1) is the set of points P in the plane whose distances from a fixed point F are e times their distances from a fixed line d. We obtain such an ellipse in standard form if

  1. the focus F lies on the x-axis, and has coordinates (ae, 0), where a > 0;

  2. the directrix d is the line with equation x = a
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3.3.2 Try some yourself

1 Answer the following questions

  • (a) How much will this tennis racquet cost if VAT at Author(s): The Open University

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3.3.1 Increasing by a percentage

Our everyday experience of percentages includes percentage increases (like VAT at %, or a service charge of 15%) and percentage decreases (such as a discount of 15%).

For example, £8 plus Author(s): The Open University

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3.2.1 Try some yourself

1 Convert each of the following to percentages. Round off the percentages to whole numbers.

  • (a)

    • (i) 0.8

    • (ii) 0.21

    • (iii) 0.70<
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3.2 Converting to a percentage

Fractions and decimals can also be converted to percentages, by multiplying by 100%.

So, for example, 0.17, 0.3 and can be expressed as percentages as follows:

  0.17 × 100% = 17%;

  0.3 × 100% = 30%;

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