Canary in a Coal Mine (MWV16)
Coral reefs are dying a death of a thousand cuts and their disappearance threatens not only the incredibly diverse ecosystem that depends on them, but also human health and welfare. In this episode of MicrobeWorld Video marine scientists Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Ph.D., chair of marine studies at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, and Kiho Kim, Ph.D., director of the environmental studies program at American University, explain the important relationship between microbes and corals,
Prostate Cancer Screening Decision Making Under Controversy: Implications for Health Promotion Pract
Prostate cancer is a major health problem for U.S. men and is characterized by paradoxes and controversies. Despite the wide availability of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, prostate cancer screening remains a controversial practice mainly because the direct impact of screening on mortality is not yet proven. As the relative value of screening, early detection, and treatment strategies continue to be debated, glaring racial-ethnic disparities persist with African American men experienci
Parental Literacy and Infant Health: An Evidence-Based Healthy Start Intervention
Syracuse Healthy Start, a federally funded infant mortality prevention project in Onondaga County, New York, has undertaken a range of interventions to address parental low literacy as a risk factor for infant mortality. A growing number of studies advocate for health-related information that is easy to read, of a low literacy level, and culturally appropriate. Creation of an evidence-based public health intervention involves analyzing local data, reviewing published studies, assessing available
‘‘It’s The Skin You’re In’’: African-American Women Talk About Their Experiences of Raci
Objectives: Stress due to experiences of racism could contribute to African-American women’s adverse birth outcomes, but systematic efforts to measure relevant experiences among childbearing women have been limited. We explored the racism experiences of childbearing African-American women to inform subsequent development of improved measures for birth outcomes research. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 40 socioeconomically diverse African-American women of childbearing
Statistical analysis of the National Institutes of Health peer review system
A statistical model is proposed for the analysis of peer-review ratings of R01 grant applications submitted to the National Institutes of Health. Innovations of this model include parameters that reflect differences in reviewer scoring patterns, a mechanism to account for the transfer of information from an application's preliminary ratings and group discussion to final ratings provided by all panel members and posterior estimates of the uncertaninty associated with proposal ratings. Application
Ensuring Community-Level Research Protections
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) and the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care (the Bioethics Center) sponsored an Educational Conference Call Series on Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Ethical Issues in Research that took place between February 2007 and June 2007, which advanced their shared goal of meaningfully involving communities in decisions made about every aspect of research. The call series was intended to increase understandi
Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic minority groups
Background Ethnic minority groups in upper-middle and high income countries tend to be socio-economically disadvantaged and to have higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than the majority population. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of culturally appropriate diabetes health education on important outcome measures in type 2 diabetes. Search strategy We searched the The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SIGLE and reference lists of articles. We also contacted auth
The Role of Community Advisory Boards: Involving Communities in the Informed Consent Process
Ethical research involving human subjects mandates that individual informed consent be obtained from research participants or from surrogates when participants are not able to consent for themselves.The existing requirements for informed consent assume that all study participants have personal autonomy; fully comprehend the purpose, risks, and benefits of the research; and volunteer for projects that disclose all relevant information. Yet contemporary examples of lapses in the individual informe
Study: Many wary of health system Care often seen as lacking by poor or nonwhite Arkansans
Many Arkansans who are black, Hispanic, Asian or poor whites distrust doctors and hospitals, according to a study presented Tuesday at the state Capitol. After researchers talked to 148 people around Arkansas, study co-investigator Dr. Eduardo Ochoa said they found "a deep-seated suspicion of the health care system."
Self-Reported Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Black–White Differences in Preterm and Low-
Objectives. We examined the effects of self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on Black–White differences in preterm (less than 37 weeks gestation) and low-birthweight (less than 2500 g) deliveries. Methods. Using logistic regression models, we analyzed data on 352 births among women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Results. Among Black women, 50% of those with preterm deliveries and 61% of those with low-birthweight infants reported having
AMA Apologizes To Blacks For Past Racial Inequality
Transplant surgeon Clive Callender has hurtful memories of being the only black doctor at medical meetings in the 1970s, met with stark silence when he pleaded for better access to transplant organs for blacks. So when the American Medical Association formally apologized Thursday for more than a century of policies that excluded blacks from a group long considered the voice of American doctors, it was belated, but still welcome.
Patient Race/Ethnicity and Quality of Patient–Physician Communication During Medical Visits
Objectives. We examined the association between patient race/ethnicity and patient–physician communication during medical visits. Methods. We used audiotape and questionnaire data collected in 1998 and 2002 to determine whether the quality of medical-visit communication differs among African American versus White patients. We analyzed data from 458 African American and White patients who visited 61 physicians in the Baltimore, Md–Washington, DC–Northern Virginia metropolitan area. Outcome
Poverty and Elimination of Urban Health Disparities Challenge and Opportunity
The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.
The Persistence of American Indian Health Disparities
Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes
Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed this Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness to respond to prevention service providers, planners, and others who request science-based interventions that work to prevent HIV transmission. All interventions selected for this Compendium came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. We required des
Disparity By Geography The War on Drugs in America’s Cities
The “war on drugs,” beginning in the 1980s, represented a profound shift in the way in which the United States practiced law enforcement, and ushered in a new era in American policing. Overall, between 1980 and 2003, the number of drug offenders in prison or jail increased by 1100% from 41,100 in 1980 to 493,800 in 2003,2 with a remarkable rise in arrests concentrated in African American communities. This precipitous escalation began as the result of a tangible shift in law enforcement pract
Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness
Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population w
Childhood Adversity and Later Mortality in an Urban African American Cohort
The Woodlawn Project is a longitudinal study of the development of psychological well-being and social adaptation in an epidemiologically defined cohort of African American first graders interviewed as adolescents and again as adults. The identification of childhood factors predictive of mortality has clear public health importance. Family and childhood adversity and psychosocial factors have been shown to have long-term effects on later mental health and school achievement in adolescence and yo
Dr. Alison McAllister, ZRT Laboratory Clinical Consultant, talks about the symptoms, physiology and treatment of adrenal dysfunction.
Dr. Elise Schroeder, ZRT Laboratory Clinical Consultant, talks about the prevalent Vitamin D deficiency, how important Vitamin D is to our health, how to determine if your Vitamin D levels are normal, and if low, how to supplement.