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What Is Community? An Evidence-Based Definition for Participatory Public Health
Increased emphasis on community collaboration indicates the need for consensus regarding the definition of community within public health.This study examined whether members of diverse US communities described community in similar ways. To identify strategies to support community collaboration in HIV vaccine trials, qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 African Americans in Durham, NC; 26 gay men in San Francisco, Calif; 25 injection drug users in Philadelphia, Pa; and 42 HIV vaccine res
Author(s): MacQueen, Kathleen M.,McLellan, Eleanor,Metzger, D

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and John Winston they are both fine healthy boys Thomas was 4 years old 24th day of last March John 2 years old 18th of same month our fourth one is a girl we call her Mary Jane She was born the 12th of June last I wrote you a letter a year or more ago but never received anny answer so I concluded that everyone was sick I want you to write me as soon as you receive this and let me know how you are coming on giving me all the news you have promised you would come to visit your friends but hav
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Indiana Historical Society,Digital Image © 2009 Indiana Historical Society. All Rights Reserved.

Steps still being taken to undo damage of America's Nuremberg
The year 1947 was a watershed for medical ethics and medical care. Fifty years ago, the Nuremberg Code, created in response to the atrocities of Nazi medicine, called for the informed consent of participants in human research. That same year, penicillin was recognized as the standard of care for syphilis. Researchers from the U.S. Public Health Service failed to connect these two milestones. They continued to conduct a long-running study in Tuskegee, Alabama, on the course of syphilis in untrea
Author(s): Wolinsky, Howard

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Florida Health Disparities Strategic Plan 2008-2011
The Florida Health Disparities Plan was commissioned to determine the extent of Florida's health disparities and to present a framework for reducing them. Disparities in cancer mortality, diabetes, HIV/AIDS and infant mortality are symptomatic of deeper problems that some minorities face. Conditions such as poor access to quality care, poverty, and low health literacy plague some minority communities - like the proverbial "troubled waters" of old. Lack of culturally competent healthcare provider
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Minority Health Facts IN RHODE ISLAND
This report provides information about major health indicators in the racial and ethnic minority populations of Rhode Island defined by the Office of Management and Budget (Directive 15) as: • African American/Black: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. • Asian and Pacific Islander (API): A person having origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Vietnam, Cam
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HEALTHY INDIANA – A MINORITY HEALTH PLAN FOR THE STATE OF INDIANA
We are proud to present the Healthy Indiana - Minority Health Plan for the State of Indiana. This is another significant step forward in addressing the health disparities of minorities in our state. In March 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a report with startling revelations about health care delivery for minorities. The report was titled "Unequal Treatment: What Healthcare Providers Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare." Not surprisingly, the IOM found t
Author(s): Marshall, Edwin C.,Patterson, Danielle L.,Holt, An

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The Interagency Council on Black and Minority Health 2007 Annual Report
We are pleased to present you with the Interagency Council on Black and Minority Health’s 2007 report. The report outlines key data findings of the council as well as three critical health focus areas to be addressed. These focus areas for improving minority health will act as a launching pad for action within Indiana on every level - residents, public health providers, community organizations, policymakers, and other stakeholders - to address health inequities and improve the health and envir
Author(s): Monroe, Judy,Hill, Mary L.,Smith, Carolin Requiz,H

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Oklahoma Task Force to Eliminate Health Disparities
In 2003 Senate Bill 680 created the Oklahoma Task Force to Eliminate Health Disparities. Initially, twelve members representing the Oklahoma Legislature and diverse members of Oklahoma’s population made up the Task Force. The Governor, President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the State Commissioner of Health each made three appointments. In 2004 an amendment to Senate Bill 680 added three new members to represent mental health concerns. The Task Force w
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New York State Minority Health Surveillance Report
New York State’s population has become increasingly diverse due, in large part, to a growing foreign-born population. In order to improve the health of all New Yorkers and to address health disparities in the population, it is critical that there be a base of knowledge and understanding of the variations in health measures that cross racial, ethnic and income groups. This Minority Health Surveillance Report (MHSR), which presents data on a wide variety of health indicators in New York State, s
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Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
In 1932 the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated an experiment in Macon County, Alabama, to determine the natural course of untreated, latent syphilis in black males. The test comprised 400 syphilitic men, as well as 200 uninfected men who served as controls. The first published report of the study appeared in 1936 with subsequent papers issued every four to six years, through the 1960s. When penicillin became widely available by the early 1950s as the preferred treatment for syphilis, t
Author(s): Brandt, Allan M.

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HIV/AIDS TRENDS; Attention to AIDS wanes, but illness is still rampant
Arkansas' leaders are mistaken if they think the epidemic of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome is under control, according to advocates for AIDS support groups. They expressed concern in an appearance before a legislative committee that authorities have become apathetic about the illness again. The Arkansas AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Jefferson Comprehensive Care Inc. appealed to the joint legislative Minority Health Subcommittee for increased funding and new laws.
Author(s): Health and, Medicine Week

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Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American Community Survey,
This report presents data on income, earnings, and poverty by detailed socioeconomic characteristics for the United States, states, and lower levels of geography based on information collected in the 2006 and 2007 American Community Surveys (ACS). A description of the ACS is provided in the text box “What Is the American Community Survey?” The U.S. Census Bureau also reports income, earnings, and poverty data based on the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS A
Author(s): Bishaw, Alemayehu,Semega, Jessica

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Canary in a Coal Mine (MWV16)
Coral reefs are dying a death of a thousand cuts and their disappearance threatens not only the incredibly diverse ecosystem that depends on them, but also human health and welfare. In this episode of MicrobeWorld Video marine scientists Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Ph.D., chair of marine studies at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, and Kiho Kim, Ph.D., director of the environmental studies program at American University, explain the important relationship between microbes and corals,
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Prostate Cancer Screening Decision Making Under Controversy: Implications for Health Promotion Pract
Prostate cancer is a major health problem for U.S. men and is characterized by paradoxes and controversies. Despite the wide availability of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, prostate cancer screening remains a controversial practice mainly because the direct impact of screening on mortality is not yet proven. As the relative value of screening, early detection, and treatment strategies continue to be debated, glaring racial-ethnic disparities persist with African American men experienci
Author(s): Gwede, Clement K.,McDermott, Robert J.

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Parental Literacy and Infant Health: An Evidence-Based Healthy Start Intervention
Syracuse Healthy Start, a federally funded infant mortality prevention project in Onondaga County, New York, has undertaken a range of interventions to address parental low literacy as a risk factor for infant mortality. A growing number of studies advocate for health-related information that is easy to read, of a low literacy level, and culturally appropriate. Creation of an evidence-based public health intervention involves analyzing local data, reviewing published studies, assessing available
Author(s): Levandowski, Brooke A.,Sharma, Priya,Lane, Sandra

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‘‘It’s The Skin You’re In’’: African-American Women Talk About Their Experiences of Raci
Objectives: Stress due to experiences of racism could contribute to African-American women’s adverse birth outcomes, but systematic efforts to measure relevant experiences among childbearing women have been limited. We explored the racism experiences of childbearing African-American women to inform subsequent development of improved measures for birth outcomes research. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with a total of 40 socioeconomically diverse African-American women of childbearing
Author(s): Nuru-Jeter, Amani,Dominguez, Tyan Parker,Hammond,

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Statistical analysis of the National Institutes of Health peer review system
A statistical model is proposed for the analysis of peer-review ratings of R01 grant applications submitted to the National Institutes of Health. Innovations of this model include parameters that reflect differences in reviewer scoring patterns, a mechanism to account for the transfer of information from an application's preliminary ratings and group discussion to final ratings provided by all panel members and posterior estimates of the uncertaninty associated with proposal ratings. Application
Author(s): Johnson, Valen E.

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Ensuring Community-Level Research Protections
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) and the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care (the Bioethics Center) sponsored an Educational Conference Call Series on Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Ethical Issues in Research that took place between February 2007 and June 2007, which advanced their shared goal of meaningfully involving communities in decisions made about every aspect of research. The call series was intended to increase understandi
Author(s): Grignon, J.,Wong, K.A.,Seifer, S.D.

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Culturally appropriate health education for type 2 diabetes mellitus in ethnic minority groups
Background Ethnic minority groups in upper-middle and high income countries tend to be socio-economically disadvantaged and to have higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than the majority population. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of culturally appropriate diabetes health education on important outcome measures in type 2 diabetes. Search strategy We searched the The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SIGLE and reference lists of articles. We also contacted auth
Author(s): Hawthorne, Kamila,Robles, Yolanda,Cannings-John, R

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The Role of Community Advisory Boards: Involving Communities in the Informed Consent Process
Ethical research involving human subjects mandates that individual informed consent be obtained from research participants or from surrogates when participants are not able to consent for themselves.The existing requirements for informed consent assume that all study participants have personal autonomy; fully comprehend the purpose, risks, and benefits of the research; and volunteer for projects that disclose all relevant information. Yet contemporary examples of lapses in the individual informe
Author(s): Strauss, Ronald P.,Sengupta, Sohini,Quinn, Sandra

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