If we add 109.8 ml of one liquid to 6.5 ml of another liquid, what would be the total volume of liquid in ml?

To compare 109.8 with 6.5, you need to remember that

Place the two numbers in a grid on top of each other and make sure that columns representing the same magnitude line up wit
Author(s): The Open University

The two physical units of measurement that you will probably come across most often in your workplace concern volumes of liquids and weight measurements. It's important to get a feeling for what various factors of ten look like, so that you can spot when there seems to be a mistake in a value that you've calculated or have been given by someone else.

The litre is the main unit of measurement for liquid volumes (written as liter in America), but what does a litre of fluid look like? What
Author(s): The Open University

As suggested in Box 1 above, there are a number of common ‘dos and don'ts’ that you need to remember and apply whenever you are dealing with decimals in your workplace.

• Look carefully! Because a decimal point is just a dot on the page it is sometimes easy to miss when reading, especially on lined paper or in faxed documents. For this reason if there are no whole units, always place a zero before the decimal point when writing decimal numbe
Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• recognise definitions and applications of each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

• understand and apply basic grammatical terminology;

• describe briefly the different types of sounds used in speech in both acoustic and articulatory terms;

• outline the key features of human language as compared to the vocalisations of other species;

• describe the complex psychologi
Author(s): The Open University

The document attached below includes the ninth and tenth sections of Mountain building in Scotland, as well as the index. In these sections, you will find the following subsections:

• 9.1 Introduction

• 9.2 The Old Red Sandstone and the Devonian Period

• 9.3 Distribution and stratigraphy of the Late Silurian to Devonian Basins

• 9.4 Sedimentation and tectonics in the Midland Valley

Author(s): The Open University

The document attached below includes the eighth section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

• 8.1 Introduction

• 8.2 Palaeocontinental reconstructions

• 8.2.1 The global view

• 8.2.2 A model for the closure of the Iapetus Ocean

• 8.2.3 Summary of Section 8.2

• 8.3 Tectonics of the Northe
Author(s): The Open University

The document attached below includes the fourth section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

• 4.1 Introduction

• 4.2.1 Dalradian sedimentary basins: seeing through metamorphism

• 4.2.2 Primary rock types and terminology

• 4.2.3 Lithostratigraphic subdivisions of the Dalradian Supe
Author(s): The Open University

The document attached below includes the table of contents and first section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

• 1.1 Setting the scene

• 1.2 Recognizing ancient mountains

• 1.3 Orogeny through geological time

• 1.3.1 Geological time: a brief note

• 1.3.2 Disentangling the cont
Author(s): The Open University

When you have studied this unit you should be able to:

• describe the geological history of the Scottish Highlands;

• give examples of igneous, metamorphic and structurally complex rocks.

Author(s): The Open University

There are two main cues available that allow us to judge the distance to a sound source. The first of these is the sound pressure level. Sound pressure level drops by 6 dB each time the distance that a sound travels doubles. In other words, if the sound pressure level of a sound is 60 dB SPL when its source is 1 m from you, then it will be 54 dB SPL if you move back another metre so that you are now 2 m away from its source. Therefore lower sound pressure levels indicate a greater distance. A
Author(s): The Open University

In these sections we have described some of the quantitative relationships between the physical dimensions of simple sounds and their subjective psychological dimensions. The physical dimension of intensity, or pressure amplitude, given in decibels (dB), directly affects loudness. Frequency of pressure changes, in hertz (Hz), mainly determines pitch.

The lowest threshold value and hence the maximal sensitivity for humans is in the region of 3000 Hz.

The quantitative relationship b
Author(s): The Open University

Willmer et al. (2000) classify desert animals in terms of the range of body sizes and the rate of evaporation (Figure 8).

Willmer, P., Stone, G. and Johnston, I. (2000) Environmental Physiology of Animals
Author(s): The Open University

References

Azzam, N. A., Hallenbeck, J. M. and Kachar, B. (2000) Membrane changes during hibernation. Nature, 407, 317–318.
Boutilier, R. G. and St-Pierre, J. (2002) Adaptive plasticity of skeletal muscle energetics in hibernating frogs: mitochondrial proton leak during metabolic depression. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 2287–2296.
Buck, C. L. an
Author(s): The Open University

The rates of muscle contraction and relaxation, and the maximum force generated, are complex enzymatic processes that determine speed of swimming. Ian Johnston of St Andrews University (Johnston, 1989) has compared the maximum tension of muscle fibres isolated from several species of antarctic, temperate-zone and tropical fish (Figure 25).

Author(s): The Open University

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Figures

Figure 2 Nortier, P. and Soustelle, M. (1987) 'Alumina carriers for automotive pollution control', in Cruecq, A. and Frennet, A. (eds) Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Elsevier Science Publishers;

Fi
Author(s): The Open University

One Dutch family was found to have a history of antisocial (aggressive) behaviour. Genetic studies were conducted and a potential culprit gene MAOA, monoamine oxidase A, identified. The aggressive individuals in the family appeared to have a mutant gene which produced no MAOAP, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, including serotonin. A knockout mouse model, in which the MAOA gene was inactive, was also found to be aggressive, apparently confirming the role of MAO
Author(s): The Open University

The examples in the previous section followed the traditional medical approach, namely that there is a disease, it can be diagnosed (identified), and the cause of the disease, be it viruses, bacteria, pathogens, genes or poisons, can be sought. This section moves away from the medical arena and into the psychological arena, where the symptoms are behavioural. In this case, the symptoms are socially unacceptable behaviour and to the list of causes just mentioned is added family circumstances a
Author(s): The Open University

This section has sought to illustrate the formation of connections between neurons and their targets by exploring a few examples. The picture that emerges is one of cells at different stages of development subjected to a vast array of signals. These signals are the medium through which environmental factors exert their effects. To some of these signals, some cells respond; to other signals, other cells respond. What a cell, a neuroblast, a growth cone actually does is dependent on the combina
Author(s): The Open University

Growth cones respond to proximal and distal cues. The proximal cues in the extracellular matrix or other cells affect adhesion and result in chemotactic guidance. Distal cues are also in the extracellular matrix but they diffuse through it and result in the growth cone either moving towards the source (attractants) or away from it (repellants). These distal cues are chemotropic cues and can have different effects on different growth cones; what may be an attractant to one growth cone may be r
Author(s): The Open University

The growth of the growth cone has been likened to the progress of a climber. The climber can only go where there are satisfactory hand and foot-holds and where progress is not blocked by physical obstacles (e.g. overhangs or ice). Furthermore, the climber is looking ahead for the best routes, from the current position to the top. Likewise the filopodia on the growth cones are extending outwards, adhering to the best holds and avoiding physical obstacles (e.g. bone or cartilage). This contact-
Author(s): The Open University