Introduction

This unit explores school geography, focusing upon how geography is currently being taught and understood. While studying this unit you will read about the significance of geography as a subject, considering what are the defining concepts for school geography and its educational value. The unit also includes a lesson plan and a look at definitions of geography as a medium of education.


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5 Giving feedback

In order to develop and improve dance skills, students should also be involved in evaluating one another's, and their own, work.

Performing for one another in class as part of an evaluation and feedback process can be beneficial to both the students and teacher.

When done on a regular basis, students can become less self-conscious about performing in front of others; this is important in terms of building confidence in young performers.

Feedback is an important part of the i
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3 Dance combinations

Movement and dance combinations enable students to make physical sense of the exercises and movement material that they are given in class on a regular basis. In dance, repetition and recapitulation are vital ingredients in the learning process, and so being presented with phrases of movement that progress and develop in complexity will allow the individual to progress and develop too.

Did you know that it takes around 180 repetitions of a movement for the muscle memory to retain that p
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • Understanding and practical experience of creating opportunities for learners to develop dance skills;

  • Awareness and understanding of safe dance practice;

  • Awareness, understanding and practical experience of giving feedback;

  • Promotion of discussion and debate about dance issues throughout the dance curriculum.


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6.2.4 Europe

Finally, an area that is subject to much dispute and political discussion is the whole issue of working conditions and the role of the EU. As already mentioned, the background to this is the question of the European Social Chapter. The UK has opted out of this EU initiative, which has to do with establishing common rights and conditions for working environments across the EU member states. A controversial aspect of this concerns the EU's European Works Councils Directive (see www.dti.g
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4 Status citizenship

All these organisational initiatives are deeply concerned with labour conditions and the notion of the ‘working citizen’. And their activities raise the issue of status citizenship and the role of legal sanctions. The forms of commitment by firms and their monitoring by the organisations just outlined are voluntary on the part of companies. One of the problems with the emphasis on acts citizenship in the debates about GCC is that the question of status citizenship is largely
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3 ‘Acts’ and ‘status’ citizenship

We aim at no less than a change in the political culture of this country both nationally and locally: for people to think of themselves as active citizens, willing, able and equipped to have an influence in public life.

Crick report, 1998

In the DfES document Making Sense of Citizenship: A CPD Handbook a distinction is drawn between acts citizenship and status cit
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2 Citizenship in the English National Curriculum

Key stage 3 of the Citizenship National Curriculum document requires pupils to – among other things – understand the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, and to appreciate the economic implications of the world as a global community, and the role of the European Union and the United Nations in fostering this.

In addition, the same document charges Key stage 4 citizenship teaching to deal with how the economy functions (including the role of business and
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1 Global corporate citizenship?

Rarely have businesses found such a complex and challenging set of economic pressures, political uncertainties and societal expectations. Regardless of their industry sector, country of origin, or corporate ownership structure, they are under growing pressure to demonstrate outstanding performance not only in terms of competitiveness and market growth, but also in their corporate governance and their corporate citizenshi
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • Critically appreciate the significance of claims made for ‘global corporate citizenship’.

  • Understand the nature of work and ‘social citizenship’.

  • Recognize the difference between ‘acts citizenship’ and ‘status citizenship’.

  • Be able to assess the ‘ethical dimension’ to arguments about citizenship.

  • See the relevance of historical comparisons for understanding co
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Introduction

The issue of ‘citizenship, work and the economy’ is often neglected in everyday discussions of citizenship. But a moment's reflection should demonstrate how important it is. The vast majority of us will spend the bulk of our adult lives working in some context or another, and our engagement with economic activity more generally is obvious (and not just as consumers).

Many young people are also intimately tied up with work. School children often have part-time evening, weekend or ho
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5.2 Further reading

For further reading on the topic of citizenship and democracy, please click on the following ‘view document’ links.

Click on 'view document' below to read New Answers to Old (and New) Criticisms

5.1 A story of fox hunting

Democracy is a thing, a practice. It is also a word – a powerful one, politically, because we all think it is a good thing. When people take part in politics, they try to claim that ‘democracy’ is on their side, and not on that of their opponents.

In November 2004, pro-hunting protesters breached House of Commons security and broke into the chamber to disrupt the debate on banning fox hunting. As a significant minority group, passionately committed to the cause of continuing hunti
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1 Is democracy really such a good thing?

Politics is vital to all of our lives. The way our schools and businesses are run, how we travel and make a living, even how we see ourselves – it all depends on political decisions. And we are all democrats today. We have elections, parties compete, we vote, and the winners govern us. But how often do we ask: is democracy really a good thing? Is there another way?

We take it for granted that democracy is a good thing and the best political system. But many people complain that democr
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Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are:

  • To consider the value of democracy, through examples.

  • To try to challenge perceived wisdom about our political systems.


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1.3.12 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information for education. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.

UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service for the UK) Site contents include course information
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1.3.7 Encyclopedias

Encyclopedias can be useful reference texts to use to start your research. There are some available online, such as:

Wikipedia A freely available collaborative encyclopedia.
Encyclopedia Br
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1.2.1 Planning your search

Your approach to searching will depend to a great extent on what kind of person you are. In an ideal world, when searching for information for a specific purpose, we would all find what exactly we were looking for at the first attempt, especially if we are in a hurry. However, it’s always a good idea to have some kind of plan when you are searching for information, if only to help you plan your time and make sure you find the information you need. If I was starting to search for material on
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2 Models of thinking

In Section 1, you were asked to think about your own definitions of inclusive education. In Section 2, we show how personal experience of inclusion and exclusion has been a major driving force in the development of inclusive education, with disabled adults in particular struggling to redefine their experiences of schooling. One major factor in this struggle towards redefinition has been the shift towards a social model of disability.

Rieser and Mason have described a model as ‘not nec
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