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1.2 Learning beyond course study

Learning how to learn has become an important goal in higher education. There is a national context in which an emphasis on ability to learn has come to prominence. It is now widely asserted that an ability to learn is as important an outcome of university study as knowledge of a discipline. This is a view put forward strongly by employers, for example, who have an interest in the employability of graduates and the skills they bring into the work place. It is a view which has been reiterated
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3.4.1 Fracture surface

One half of the eye at the joint is shown in Figure 38(a), and it shows two breaks in the limbs either side of the pin-hole. Although both appear brittle in this picture, in fact one side showed signs of ductile deformation. The way it had fractured was unique when compared with the other eye b
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3.3.4 Examining the parts

Brittle fractures were discovered quickly in the mass of debris hauled from the river. Such samples became the focus of increasing effort as time went by, simply because they were unexpected. So the possible failure mechanisms were immediately narrowed down when brittle fractures of critical components started to emerge from the river.

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3.3.3 Reassembling the parts

As the wreckage was pulled from the river it was examined and identified, and any failures of the metal components were recognised and tagged. This was a mammoth task, given that virtually the whole bridge had fallen into the water, including all the road decks, trusses, chains and hangers, eye bars and the two towers. The parts were then reassembled and all the failed or fractured components photographed and catalogued. Over 90 per cent of the bridge components were collected together and re
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4.3 The response of some of Germany's allies to Nazi anti-Semitism and the Final Solution

The Hungarians were latecomers to the killing of Jews, but when they became involved in 1944 their police and administrators appear generally to have acted with an unpleasant enthusiasm for the enterprise. Vichy France introduced anti-Semitic legislation early on. The Statute of Jews of 3 October 1940 barred French Jews from holding responsible positions in the public service, from teaching and from the news media; it also prohibited them from entering the département of the Allier, w
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Introduction

This unit explores the Holocaust, as the destruction of European Jewry is commonly known. The mass killing represented by the Holocaust raises many questions concerning the development of European civilisation during the twentieth century. This unit, therefore, covers essential ground if you wish to understand this development.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course
Author(s): The Open University

3 Rhythm

All speech has rhythm because we naturally stress some words or syllables more than others. The rhythm can sometimes be very regular and pronounced, as in a children's nursery rhyme – ‘JACK and JILL went UP the HILL’ – but even in the most ordinary sentence the important words are given more stress. In poetry, rhythm is extremely important: patterns are deliberately created and repeated for varying effects. The rhythmical pattern of a poem is called its metre, and we can analyse, or
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2 Using this unit

In what follows, section headings like ‘Rhyme’, ‘Rhythm’, ‘Line lengths and line endings’, ‘Alliteration’, and so on, are intended to act as signposts to help you use this unit (if terms are unfamiliar, look them up in the glossary at the end of this unit). But these headings indicate only the main technique being discussed. While it is something we need to attempt, it is very difficult to try to isolate devices in this way – to separate out, for example, the effects
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1.6 The social context of Babylonian mathematical activity

The extant mathematical tablets from the Old Babylonian period fall broadly into two categories, table texts and problem texts. You have seen examples of both of these. The weighing-the-stone problem with which we started is from a problem text, while all the others—the table of squares, the reciprocal table and Plimpton 322—are table texts, tablets consisting solely of tables of numbers. Several hundred table texts have been found, and many types of calculations appear to h
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2.5.1 Imagery of the Declaration

The decree on the abolition of nobility drew the line at damage to property, ownership of property having been proclaimed a natural right in the Declaration of the Rights of Man. (The decree is evidence that, as is known from other sources, the crowd was taking the law into its own hands by ransacking chateaux, destroying records of seigneurial dues, etc.)

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References

Section 1
Barker, E. et al. (1999) The Changing Status of the Artist, New Haven and London, Yale University Press in association with The Open University.
Hibbard, H. (1983) Caravaggio, London, Thames and Hudson.
Kant, I. (1987) Critique of Judgment (trans. W.S. Pluhar), Indianapolis, Hackett.

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2.1 ‘Every painter paints himself’?

Art history methods of biography or ‘Life’ writing attempt to link an artist to his art. Why do we need to know about an artist's life to know about his art in the first place? Why might Helen Langdon want to explain Caravaggio the man and not just his world or his art? Behind this questions lies a problem central to art history. Do we need to know about artists to know about their art?

Martin Kemp gives the link between an artist and his art a historical comple
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3.1 Imagination and imagery

From the very origins of concern with the imagination in the work of the ancient Greeks, the imagination has been associated with imagery. But what is the relationship between imagination and imagery? In chapter 12 of his book, The Language of Imagination (1990), Alan White addresses this question and argues that imagination neither implies nor is implied by imagery.


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4.2 Simplicity and complexity

As we have already discovered, the concept of ‘simplicity’ is not a simple matter. We saw earlier in the unit that the simplicity of folk-song is not the same as classical simplicity, though both influenced the taste of Lieder writers. ‘Heidenröslein’ and ‘Wandrers Nachtlied’ are simple in quite different ways, both in their poetry and in their music. Many other songs by Schubert are much longer, much more complex, and treat the poetry with much greater freedom. This aspect of Sc
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Learning outcomes

By the end of your work on this unit you should:

  • have learned about Schubert's place as a composer in early nineteenth-century Vienna;

  • have learned about the place of Schubert in the history of German song and the development of Romanticism;

  • be able to follow the words of songs by Schubert while listening to a recording, using parallel German and English texts;

  • be able to comment on the relationship between words and music in Schubert
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4.5 The cases in Latin

‘Cases’ indicate the various functions that nouns, pronouns and adjectives can have in a sentence. The case is shown by the word-ending in Latin.

Although learning about cases is not within the scope of this introductory unit, it may help to have a short checklist of the cases and how they may be translated into English from Latin.


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4.2.7 Conjunctions

Conjunctions join together individual words, phrases and clauses (the components of sentences which are longer than a simple sentence of the type: ‘Everyone can enjoy learning Latin’). So-called co-ordinating conjunctions are such words as and and but, as in the following examples:

  • fish and chips

  • Last summer they went to the Baltic and visited the city of Riga.

  • They went to the Baltic b
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4.2.6 Prepositions

Prepositions are always used with a noun or pronoun in a prepositional phrase, for example in the sea, to the cinema, behind the clouds, after breakfast, with her.

Notice how in English, we say: This is for him (not he); He went with William and me’ and Give the sweets to Helen and me (not I). These examples show how in English, prepositions (italicised here) r
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4.2.4 Verbs

Verbs are the most important words of all, as is suggested by the fact that the verb in both English and Latin is named after the Latin word uerbum, word! Without a verb, a sentence cannot be a proper sentence, or a clause a proper clause. A one-word sentence consists of a verb only, for example, Run!

The ending of a Latin verb shows who the doer of the action of the verb is (which is why there is usually no need of a pronoun to show this). Below are the pres
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2.3.2 Love

Please now read ‘Dogs and Wolves’.

Click to view the poem ‘Dogs and Wolves’

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Case