6 Personal response to a memorial

But, you may be thinking, all our agreement up to now has shown that these perceptions and assumptions come from a common understanding of the appropriate form and meaning of a war memorial. Where, might you ask, does personal response come in? Are we not individuals who have different ways of looking at artefacts and of deciding what – if anything – they mean? This question opens up a big area of discussion, one which will be taken up many times later.

Clearly, as individuals, we m
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3.2 Public or private memorial?

The choice of location has wider implications, too. If the chosen site is in a public place, such as a park or village green in public ownership, then the building is accessible to all. No specific interest controls it (though of course there may be special arrangements made for its upkeep) and no particular individual owns it.

On the other hand, if a memorial is created by a family in memory of an individual, then the location of the memorial reflects that gift. Such memorials are ofte
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Nicola Watson

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References

Attree, H.R. (1809) Topography of Brighton: and, Picture of the Roads, from Thence to the Metropolis, Brighton and London.
Austen, J. (1967) Pride and Prejudice, in The Novels of Jane Austen, ed. R.W. Chapman, vol.2, Oxford, Oxford University Press (this series first published 1923).
Batey, M. (1995) Regency Gardens, Princes Risborough, Shire Publ
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8 How ‘Romantic’ is the Pavilion?

At first glance the Pavilion's exoticism might seem to have a good deal to do with contemporary Romantic writers’ fascination with the Oriental and exotic. A widespread public interest in these modes put Byron's ‘Oriental tales’ and Thomas Moore's romance Lalla Rookh at the top of the bestseller lists. Coleridge's ‘Kubla Khan’, after all, is often regarded as the paradigmatic Romantic short poem. So, flouting the conventions of historians of architecture, who designate this p
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6 The Pavilion and the picturesque

Nash's evocation of the picturesque as an aesthetic to describe the projected exterior for the Pavilion is striking. If neoclassical Palladian houses had stood four-square in the landscape, rising up out of extensive lawns and commanding an elaborately naturalistic landscape of grazing sheep and cattle to the horizon diversified by an ornamental lake, the picturesque house was instead enfolded within and extended by its garden.

Repton and Nash, in partnership from 1796 to 1802, were two
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3 From Enlightenment to Romantic?

In 1800, having divorced Mrs Fitzherbert and contracted a disastrous marriage with Princess Caroline of Brunswick, forced on him by the necessity of persuading the king to clear his vast debts, the Prince of Wales fled back to Brighton with his court. In 1801 he whiled away his time (and squandered Caroline's dowry) dreaming up extensions and changes to the interior decor of the Pavilion.

Of these, certainly the most interesting and prophetic was his development of the interior into a C
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2.3 Some distinctions

I now want to distinguish consciousness, in the sense outlined above, from some related phenomena. This should help to clarify the concept further and avoid potential confusion. What follows draws in part on distinctions and terminology introduced by the philosopher David Rosenthal (Rosenthal, 1993).

The first distinction I want to make has already been introduced. When I described your experience at the dentist's I spoke both of you being conscious and of your experiences
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7 Summary

We have been primarily concerned to explore in a preliminary fashion the domain of the mental. We have looked briefly at various different kinds of actual and possible minds – normal and abnormal human minds, animal minds, angelic minds, and so on – and at the variety of mental phenomena – thought, perception, sensation, emotion, etc. Describing what a mind might be like is partly a matter of describing the kinds of mental phenomena that the mind in question exhibits. Conceiving of what
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3.2 Health and wealth

While all classes regarded good health as desirable, access to various means of preserving or promoting it varied according to economic circumstances. For the upper and middle classes, with substantial amounts of disposable income, a wide range of options were available. They could access information about how to protect their health through books and articles in magazines. Many of these books were written (or at least claimed to be written) by doctors and other health-care professionals. An
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3.1 Introduction

Surrounded by the ever-present threat of ill health, not surprisingly, people expended a good deal of time and energy on trying to stay well. The late nineteenth century saw a new emphasis on promoting health, which was defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (quoted in Riley, 1997, p. 199). Health was not simply a desirable end in itself. The pursuit of health was portrayed as a moral duty: parents had a
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1 Access to healthcare, 1880–1930

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have often been described as a period of progress, when the poorer classes gained access to a whole range of medical services previously reserved for the wealthy. In the past, this opening up of care was largely attributed to the state. Across Europe, central and local governments created health insurance schemes and new welfare services to provide the poor with access to care, from general practitioners (GPs) to outpatient and hospital care,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to do the following:

  • describe the wide range of methods of promoting health, preventing disease and providing care that were available to patients of different social groups and classes;

  • be aware of the inequalities of services – in terms of both quality of care and access to different services – open to different social groups and classes;

  • assess the significance of the roles of central and local gov
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Debbie Brunton

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

The extracts adapted for OpenLearn appear in full in Medicine Transformed: Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800–1930 (ed Deborah Brunton), published by Ma
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References

Adair, R., Forsythe, B. and Melling, J. (1997) ‘Migration, family structure and pauper lunacy in Victorian England: admissions to the Devon County Pauper Lunatic Asylum, 1845–1900’, Continuity and Change, vol.12, no.3, pp.373–401.
Adair, R., Forsythe, B. and Melling, J. (1998) ‘A danger to the public? Disposing of pauper lunatics in late-Victorian and Edwardian England: Plympton St Mary Union and the
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4.5 Section summary

This section has given some of the sense of how historians work – by developing explanations of historical events, which are in turn challenged by new research that re-examines these ideas. In the case of the nineteenth-century asylum, much of the research carried out since the 1980s is based on new sources and detailed case studies which test old explanations for the timing and causes of the growth of asylums. In part, this reflects a trend in other areas of medical history and in the broa
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4.4 Outside the asylum walls: limits to the primacy of the asylum as a solution

Although historians have written about the asylum as the only response to insanity, there was in fact a widely used alternative. Boarding-out, or ‘family care’ of the insane, offered a genuine alternative to asylumdom. The exact form of boarding-out differed from one national and regional context to another, but basically it supported patients within domestic and often rural settings, generally with guardians or relatives in single dwellings and cottages. The practice had long been
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4.2 Social factors in the growth of the asylum: industrialisation, urbanisation and migration

Many historians link the rise of the asylum with the huge social changes of the nineteenth century. Some link the rise to industrialisation and urbanisation, pointing to the fact that asylums grew up in industrial regions and large cities. Frank Rice, for example, argues that in Scotland the great majority of asylums grew up if not within urban centres, then at least servicing urbanised communities, in the central belt of Scotland (Author(s): The Open University

4.1 Introduction

In the nineteenth century, the asylum became – as never before – the accepted place for the care and treatment of insanity. Until that time, people suffering from mental disorders were mostly cared for at home. Of the few institutions that offered care, most were rather small. They were funded by a combination of fees charged to patients and charitable donations or subscriptions. From the early nineteenth century, the number of asylums increased all over Europe as governments accepted a r
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3.4 War and women in medicine

Until 1914, the number of women attending medical schools grew slowly (Figure 4). In Britain, even after the 1876 Enabling Act allowed medical examining boards to grant licences to women, universities could still legally exclude women from their medical schools. By
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