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1.5.5 Derived functions and derivative notation

Given the function x(t) that describes some particular motion, you could plot the corresponding position–time graph, measure its gradient at a variety of times to find the instantaneous velocity at those times and then plot the velocity–time graph. If you had some time left, you might go on to measure the gradient of the velocity–time graph at various times, and then plot the acceleration–time graph for the motion. This would effectively complete the description of the m
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1.5.4 Functions and the function notation

In Figure 25, the position x of the car depends on the time t. The graph associates a particular value of x with each value of t over the plotted range. In other circumstances we might know an equation that associates a value of x with each value of t, as in the case of the equation x = At + B that we discussed in Section 3. You can invent countless other ways in which x depends on t: for instance x = 
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1.5.3 A note on functions and derivatives

This subsection introduces two crucially important mathematical ideas, functions and derivatives, both of which are used throughout physics.


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5 Who were the ancestors of Homo sapiens?

Large brain size is a defining feature of Homo sapiens, which means that evolution of increased brain size in Homo is crucial evidence. Indeed, an increase in both the size and the complexity of the brain is a defining feature of primate evolution as a whole. It's possible to estimate brain sizes from fossil skulls or parts of skulls, e.g. by filling what there is of the skull with sand and then measuring the volume of the sand. Use of computer technology fills in ‘gaps’ in
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5 Miss Piggy

As the earliest mammals – the insectivores – were specialists, it follows that the omnivore lifestyle must have arisen at some later stage in a group or groups of non-omnivores. In fact, both seed eating and leaf eating arose before omnivory. Twenty million years ago, Dinohyus was undoubtedly a ‘specialist’ omnivore.

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Fur

Fur is important in thermoregulation, but a conspicuous coat may proclaim sexual dominance or warn off competitors. It's similarly important for predators to remain unseen for as long as possible. The most familiar type of camouflage is the colour of the hunter merging into the background environment colour – think about stoat in winter (ermine), polar bears against the ice of the Arctic and lions against the baked soil and dried grass of Africa. But equally important is the patterned fur o
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6 Grazers and browsers

A good deal of the discussion so far has been related to animals that eat leaves in the form of grass and other herbaceous plants, the grazers, but this is not the only type of plant food. Also available as food are the leaves of trees and bushes. These form the diet of the browsers.


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5.3 Hindgut fermenters

The odd-toed ungulates (comprising the order Perissodactyla), the horses, tapirs and rhinoceroses, are hindgut fermenters, as are elephants. Update Table 2 with this information. These animals have a relatively simple, small undivided stomach, but this time an even larger caecum and colon where the microbes are housed and whe
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3 Herbivore teeth

Tables are a useful way of recording key information. The headings for Tables 1 and 2 have been prepared for you, and you can copy and complete the tables in your notebook. If you need to find any of this information again later, then it is very useful to have it summarised in a table.

I
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3 Appendix: Some highlights of physics

c. 624 BC Birth of Thales of Miletus: traditionally ‘the first physicist’.
384 BC Birth of Aristotle: author of Physics.
1543 Nicolaus Copernicus' De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium.
1600 William Gilbert's De Magnete describing the behaviour of
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Faraday and Maxwell

Michael Faraday (1791–1867)

Figure 21
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1.5 Star clusters and stellar evolution

Detailed observations of star clusters suggest that they occur because the stars in them form at about the same time. Moreover, the compositions of the stars are similar. Isolated stars (including isolated binary stars) result from the later partial or complete dispersal of a cluster.

The crucial points for us here are that all the stars in a cluster formed at about the same time, and all have similar compositions.

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3.5 The structure of adipose tissue

Since food is only available seasonally or intermittently at high latitudes, many arctic birds and mammals, including polar bears, Svalbard reindeer, arctic foxes, seals and walruses, naturally accumulate large stores of fat. The quantity of energy stored and the metabolic control of its use are finely adjusted to the habits and habitat of the species. This section is concerned with the cellular structure and anatomical organization of adipose tissue in such naturally obese species. Most labo
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4.2.1 Composition

The current three-way catalyst, shown schematically in Figure 1, is generally a multicomponent material, containing the precious metals rhodium, platinum and (to a lesser extent) palladium, ceria (CeO2), γ-alumina (Al2O3), and other metal oxides. It typically consists of a ceramic mono
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References

Blakemore, C. and Cooper, A. (1970) Development of the brain depends on visual environment, Nature, 228, pp. 477–8.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., Taylor, A. and Poulton, R. (2002) Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children, Science, 297, pp. 851–4.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor
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3.1 Introduction

We each begin life with a unique genome. As we grow and develop, we are each subjected to a range of factors that influence the way development proceeds. Most of those factors are common to us all, the intracellular and intercellular signals, hormones, birth, milk. But the precise combination and the range and duration of those factors varies between individuals, such as the duration of gestation or the composition and quantity of a mother's milk, for example. In addition we each undergo diff
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

1. Join the 200,000 studen
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Unit Image

Chase Crowson flickr.com (18 October 2007)

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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Introduction

This unit explores how information contained in DNA is used, explaining the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein. Also introduced are the concepts of transcription (as occurs between DNA and RNA) and translation.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)


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