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Introduction

‘Environment’ is one of the more popular words in the management lexicon, most generally understood to be referring to ‘something outside’. But common usage today often interprets the Environment (with or without the capital ‘E’) as referring to the planetary ecosystem. On that basis the Environment includes such things as global warming, the state of the ozone layer, deforestation and the means of energy generation. Organisations need to coexist with their environment, responding
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3.1 Evaluation while developing the vision

A project is often shaped through discussion among those developing the vision and direction of the project. They may agree in general terms about what is to be achieved, but have to make a number of choices before deciding how to proceed. It may be important to allow time for different views to be heard and considered, and for attitudes to change and – hopefully – converge.

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify your objectives;

  • assess what you have to offer;

  • balance these against a practical framework of your personal circumstances;

  • explore a range of reference sources to select what is most relevant;

  • prepare an action plan, including evaluation of achievements;

  • produce ongoing strategies to develop your voluntary work;

  • understand employers
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Introduction

This unit provides a further opportunity for you to take notes using audio visual material. Before continuing to watch the clips, please ensure that you have already worked through DD208_1.

Use the advice and guidance that you learnt in DD208_1 to take notes on the video clip presented in this unit. Use the note taking techniques you learnt, and remember that your notes need to reflect what each video is showing. You need to identify the nature of the debates and the arguments and ident
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Learning from audio visual text

You might think that learning from audio visual sources is very different from learning from written sources, yet, somewhat surprisingly, it is much the same. As you may be familiar with watching videos mainly for leisure, this section will help you to think about how you can turn the familiar, but usually passive, process of watching a video into the active process of learning. Watching the video clips will involve the skills of engaging with the material and making sense of it for yourself,
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The 1990s wedding photograph

Figure 3
Figure 3: Wedding group in 1997.

Now let us look at the 1990s image. This too depicts a wedding. What makes it different from that of
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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the Internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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Introduction

This unit, which contains material from the current Open University second level Politics course DD203 Power, Equality and Dissent, is pitched at the intermediate level. It should take you about 8 hours to study if you attempt the recommended exercises and make summary notes of its key points. Doing so will allow you to practise the crucial academic skill of summary and précis – extracting the gist of an argument – which will be of particular help if you go on to study in related
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4.1 Legacy technology

The aim of Section 5 is to examine some of the issues and problems which affect the devekopment of Internet, e-commerce and e-business applications.

The World Wide Web was developed as a way of dispensing documentation within the large research laboratory at CERN in Geneva. I am sure that the originator of the technology, Tim Berners-Lee, did not realise at that stage how it would expand and become a major component of our economic infrastructure. Because many of the developers o
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3.3 Stage 2: Gathering the course material together

You will need to gather all your course material and lecture notes together, and organise them properly. Your course material or texts should contain an overview of your course. Keep this to hand, as it will prove invaluable in you come to identify the topics you will need to revise.

There are also other sources of information that you can draw on when gathering information for your revision.

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1 Revision and exams

Most likely, you are reading this unit because you feel unsure about your ability to do yourself justice in exams. You may never have taken an exam and are wondering how to prepare yourself. It may have been a long time since you took an exam, and you feel a need to refresh your technique. You may be looking for reassurance and advice because you may have had a bad exam experience in the past. Whatever your reason, we hope that this unit will help.

This unit is a practical one, and we w
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10.1 Further reading

OU books

  • The Good Study Guide, by Andrew Northedge, published by The Open University, 2005, ISBN 0 7492 59744
  • The Sciences Good Study Guide, by Andrew Northedge, Jeff Thomas, Andrew Lane, Alice Peasgood, published by The Open University, 1997, ISBN 0 7492 341 1 3
  • The Arts Good Study Guide, by Ellie Chambers and Andrew Northedge, published by The Open University, 1997, ISBN 0 7492 8745 4

Other boo
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7.1 Reviewing

This phase takes place after a period of study and an assignment have been completed. It is when you focus on reviewing your performance on your assignment as well as the whole cycle of study you have just completed. The two activities of this phase are:

  • learning from feedback
  • reviewing the whole process.

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Introduction

Learning how to learn is a process in which we all engage throughout our lives, although often we do not realise that we are, in fact, learning how to learn. Most of the time we concentrate on what we are learning rather than how we are learning it. In this unit, we aim to make the process of learning much more explicit by inviting you to apply the various ideas and activities to your own current or recent study as a way of increasing your awareness of your own learning.
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material:

The following material is Proprietary, used under licence (see terms and conditions) This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

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References

Entwistle, N. (1997) ‘Contrasting perspectives on learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teaching and studying in Higher Education, Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press Limited.
Marton, F. and R. Saljo (1997) ‘Approaches to learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teachi
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4.1 Underlining and highlighting

To be able to make sense of what you are reading, you need to read actively. One method that can help is to use a pen.

Activity 2

Did you underline or highlight any words as you read the Layard article? If not, go back over the
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3.1 Skimming

Did you read the Layard article quickly enough, or perhaps too quickly? Reading speed is a persistent worry when you study. There always seems to be much more to read than you have time for, so you feel a tremendous pressure to read faster. But then, if you go too fast, you don't learn much. So what is the ‘right’ speed? The answer is – it depends on what you are trying to achieve.

It's surprising how much you can pick up if you push on quickly through a few pages.

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2.5 Poor environment

Were you held back at all in your reading by the environment you were reading in? Were you reading in bed, in the bath, sitting at a desk, on the bus, or in the park? Any of these could be a good time and place, but did it actually work for you?

Were you able to maintain your concentration fo
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2.4 Disagreeing with the author

It is clear from Kate's responses that from the outset she felt hostile to Layard's article and to Layard himself. As she later explained in a seminar, she felt that he looked down on people with low incomes, such as herself. She felt she was being told that she wasn't happy with her life and that she envied people with lots of possessions. In her philosophy, she said, happiness had nothing to do with wealth. She was just as capable of being happy as the richest people in the country. Because
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