Interpreting data: Boxplots and tables
This unit is concerned with two main topics. In Section 1, you will learn about another kind of graphical display, the boxplot. A boxplot is a fairly simple graphic, which displays certain summary statistics of a set of data. Boxplots are particularly useful for assessing quickly the location, dispersion, and symmetry or skewness of a set of data, and for making comparisons of these features in two or more data sets. Boxplots can also be useful for drawing attention to possible outliers in a dat
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Surfaces
Surfaces are a special class of topological spaces that crop up in many places in the world of mathematics. In this unit, you will learn to classify surfaces and will be introduced to such concepts as homeomorphism, orientability, the Euler characteristic and the classification theorem of compact surfaces. First published on Thu, 18 Aug 2011 as <
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Acknowledgements

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All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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Modelling heat transfer

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.4 MB).

Introduction

In the OpenLearn unit on Developing modelling skills (MSXR209_3), the idea of revising a model was introduced. In this unit you will be taken through the whole modelling process in detail, from creating a first simple model, through evaluating it, to the subsequent revision of the model by changing one of the assumptions. The new aspect here is the emphasis on a revised model, which comes in Section 2. The problem that will be examined is one based on heat transfer.

This unit, the four
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1 Developing modelling skills

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.2 MB).

Introduction

This unit provides an overview of the processes involved in developing models. It starts by explaining how to specify the purpose of the model and moves on to look at aspects involved in creating models, such as simplifying problems, choosing variables and parameters, formulating relationships and finding solutions. You will also look at interpreting results and evaluating models.

This unit, the third in a series of five, builds on the ideas introduced and developed in Modelling poll
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Acknowledgements

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Unit Image

Wade_In_Tulsa, photos

All other materials included in thi
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1 Analysing skid marks

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.2 MB).

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

All materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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Introduction

This unit explores a real-world system – the Great Lakes – where mathematical modelling has been used to understand what is happening and to predict what will happen if changes are made. The system concerned is extremely complex but, by keeping things as simple as possible, sufficient information will be extracted to allow a mathematical model of the system to be obtained.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Arithmetic with real numbers

At the end of Section 1, we discussed the decimals and asked whether it is possible to add and multiply these numbers to obtain another real number. We now explain how this can be done using the Least Upper Bound Property of Author(s): The Open University

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4.4 Further exercises

Exercise 29

In this exercise, take

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4.3 Least Upper Bound Property

In the examples just given, it was straightforward to guess the values of sup E and inf E. Sometimes, however, this is not the case. For example, if then it can be shown that E is bounded above by 3, but it is not so easy to guess the least upper bound of E.

In such cases, it i
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4.2 Least upper and greatest lower bounds

We have seen that the set [0, 2) has no maximum element. However, [0, 2) has many upper bounds, for example, 2, 3, 3.5 and 157.1. Among all these upper bounds, the number 2 is the least upper bound because any number less than 2 is not an upper bound of [0, 2).

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1.6 Further exercises

Exercise 7

Arrange the following numbers in increasing order:

  • (a) 7/36, 3/20, 1/6, 7/45, 11/60;

  • (b) Author(s): The Open University

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1.5 Arithmetic with real numbers

We can do arithmetic with recurring decimals by first converting the decimals to fractions. However, it is not obvious how to do arithmetic with non-recurring decimals. For example, assuming that we can represent and Author(s): The Open University

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1.4 Real numbers and their properties

Together, the rational numbers (recurring decimals) and irrational numbers (non-recurring decimals) form the set of real numbers, denoted by .

As with rational numbers, we can determine which of two real numbers is greater by comparing their decimals and noticing the first pair of corresponding digits
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1.2 Decimal representation of rational numbers

The decimal system enables us to represent all the natural numbers using only the ten integers which are called digits. We now remind you of the basic facts about the representation of rational numbers by decimals.


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1.1 Rational numbers

The set of natural numbers is the set of integers is and the set of rational numbers is Author(s): The Open University

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