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6.1 Introduction
This unit helps you understand the properties of nucleotides and how they contribute to secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids at the molecular level. You will learn about the different composition and roles of nucleic acids in the cell, their interactions with each other and the use of ribozymes, aptamers, antisense and hybridization as tools in molecular research. The unit covers the function of DNA packaging within the cell, the interactions between the DNA double helix and the nu
Author(s): The Open University

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7.1 Introduction
This unit helps you understand the properties of nucleotides and how they contribute to secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids at the molecular level. You will learn about the different composition and roles of nucleic acids in the cell, their interactions with each other and the use of ribozymes, aptamers, antisense and hybridization as tools in molecular research. The unit covers the function of DNA packaging within the cell, the interactions between the DNA double helix and the nu
Author(s): The Open University

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8.1 Introduction
This unit helps you understand the properties of nucleotides and how they contribute to secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids at the molecular level. You will learn about the different composition and roles of nucleic acids in the cell, their interactions with each other and the use of ribozymes, aptamers, antisense and hybridization as tools in molecular research. The unit covers the function of DNA packaging within the cell, the interactions between the DNA double helix and the nu
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction
This unit looks at some of the architectural and programming paradigms used in distributed system development. You will learn about synchronous and asynchronous message passing, distributed objects technology and event-based bus architecture, before finally moving on to tuple architecture.
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 Introduction
This unit looks at some of the architectural and programming paradigms used in distributed system development. You will learn about synchronous and asynchronous message passing, distributed objects technology and event-based bus architecture, before finally moving on to tuple architecture.
Author(s): The Open University

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5.1 Introduction
This unit looks at some of the architectural and programming paradigms used in distributed system development. You will learn about synchronous and asynchronous message passing, distributed objects technology and event-based bus architecture, before finally moving on to tuple architecture.
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction
What is ‘e-commerce’? This unit will look at typical application areas including the internet, supply chain management and online auctions. It will also help you to understand the underlying technologies used to implement e-commerce applications before looking at some of the problems that can be encountered when developing distributed e-commerce systems.
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

From an early age, play is important to a child's development and learning. It isn't just physical. It can involve cognitive, imaginative, creative, emotional and social aspects. It is the main way most children express their impulse to explore, experiment and understand. Children of all ages play.

(Dobson, 2004, p.8)

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Devel
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1.1 Introduction
Has the emphasis on raising educational standards in the UK led to adult-led learning replacing play? This unit will help teachers assess the importance of spontaneous play and socialising in the playground as well as looking at the value of play and the varying attitudes that adults have towards the activity.
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2.1 Introduction
Has the emphasis on raising educational standards in the UK led to adult-led learning replacing play? This unit will help teachers assess the importance of spontaneous play and socialising in the playground as well as looking at the value of play and the varying attitudes that adults have towards the activity.
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

In this unit, we emphasise the strategic importance of marketing communication, rather than seeing it as merely a tactical process of promoting the other elements of the marketing mix. Brands exist in the minds of customers not only through their experience of a product or service, but also because of the long-term effects of communication.

Traditional marketing models fail to capture the complexity of contemporary consumer behaviour. Simple cause and effect can no longer be relied upon
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Introduction

This unit draws attention to the value of a sociocultural understanding of spoken language in the processes of teaching and learning. It focuses upon how language can be used for persuasion, control and argument, and how dialogue can act as an aid to development. Along with some background reading and activities this unit offers opportunities for the evaluation of some selected classroom talk.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Language and literacy in a
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Introduction

The problem of who, or what, are ‘Europeans’ is at the centre of many of the most acute political and social issues confronting contemporary Europe. Can a genuine European identity be constructed within Europe, and if so on what basis? This question is of even greater importance as the European Union expands and becomes ever more multicultural in character. This unit examines the ways in which European identities are – or are not – being forged across Europe. It assesses the var
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Introduction

This unit focuses on key developments in the economy of the European Union (EU) since the advent of the Euro in 1999. Further, it concentrates on the challenges this has posed for economic policy formation and the governance of the EU's expanding economy. One of the central features of the post-Maastricht governance environment is the attempt to create a ‘single market in services’ for Europe. If the 1990s was the decade of the ‘single market programme’ (SMP) which concentra
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1.1 Managing the European economy after the introduction of the Euro

In many ways the introduction of the Euro both begged the question of an integrated financial system for Europe (or the Euro-zone in the first instance) and was stimulated by its own success. This success can be measured in terms of a relatively low-inflation economy and, after a shaky start, the Euro's emergence as an international currency of some repute. Thus one of the first issues to deal with in this unit is the background to the institutional changes that Economic and Monetary Union (E
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Introduction

How do financial markets match providers with users, and how efficiently does the market determine prices? Financial markets can be notoriously volatile, and the stock market is possibly the most volatile of them all. This is after all the place where, depending on skill or on luck, investors either ‘make a killing’ or ‘lose their shirts’. But which does it depend on – skill or luck? Or does it depend on a mixture of the two? In this unit, you will find the answers to the
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4.1 Introduction
Risk, in a financial context, is a synonym for uncertainty. This unit will allow those with some background knowledge of the area to explore investment risk. You will examine how and why investors are risk-averse and look at the risk factors involved in making a decision to invest.
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Introduction

This unit helps you to acquire the basic language to find your way around a French town. You will learn how to understand and give directions, ask about accommodation, book a hotel room at the tourist information office and get information about what to see and do in the local area. You will visit some museums in Avignon and buy a film for your camera. This unit also deals with telling the time and making liaisons in speech. By the end of the unit, you will feel more confident understanding a
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Introduction

There is a widespread perception in the West that we live in a secular age, an age in which religion is at best an optional extra, if not a false delusion completely out of place. However, religion still arouses passion and causes controversy; it controls and transforms lives. An informed understanding of the contemporary world thus requires an appreciation of the role of religion in shaping ideas, world-views and actions that have an impact on the social as well as on the personal life of th
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Introduction

‘Environment’ is one of the more popular words in the management lexicon, most generally understood to be referring to ‘something outside’. But common usage today often interprets the Environment (with or without the capital ‘E’) as referring to the planetary ecosystem. On that basis the Environment includes such things as global warming, the state of the ozone layer, deforestation and the means of energy generation. Organisations need to coexist with their environm
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