This unit considers the growth of human rights and humanitarian law before looking at the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in detail. It will also look at the position of human rights in the UK and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998.
This unit is an adapted extract from the course Rules, rights and justice: an introduction to law (W100)
The relationship between the EC and the EU
The words â€˜European Economic Communityâ€™ (EEC), â€˜European Communityâ€™ (EC) and â€˜European Unionâ€™ (EU) have already been used in this unit, and many texts and journal and newspaper articles use them interchangeably. It is important that you are clear on their relationship and what they mean. This unit will always refer to the current position as the EU, but what is the relationship between the EC, the EEC and the EU?
As mentioned earlier, the Maastricht Treaty (1992) established
When determining the meaning of particular words the courts will make certain presumptions about the law. If the statute clearly states the opposite, then a presumption will not apply and it is said that the presumption is rebutted. The main presumptions are:

A presumption against change in the common law.
It is assumed that the common law will apply unless Parliament has made it plain in the Act that the common law has been altered.
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This third rule gives a judge more discretion than either the literal or the golden rule. This rule requires the court to look to what the law was before the statute was passed in order to discover what gap or mischief the statute was intended to cover. The court is then required to interpret the statute in such a way to ensure that the gap is covered. The rule is contained in Heydon's Case (1584), where it was said that for the true interpretation of a statute, four things have to be
1 For each of the following calculations make suitable rough estimates before doing the calculation on your calculator and check the result.
(a) 22.12 Ã· 4.12
(b) 0.897 Ã—
3.1 Have I done the right calculation?
Once you have done a calculation, with or without the aid of a calculator, it is important that you pause for a moment to check your calculation.
You need to ask yourself some questions.
Have I done the right calculation in the right order?
Have I given due consideration to units of measurement?
Is my answer reasonable?
Did I make a rough estimate to act as a check?
Your calculation wil
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1.4.3 A price index for the shopping basket
In the audio session, two methods of constructing a price index for bread were described. They were called the â€˜previous yearâ€™ method and the â€˜base yearâ€™ method. In both cases, the value of the index in the base year is 100. So, for the base year method,
For the prev
1.4: Price ratios and price indices
Aims The main aim of this section is to look at some different ways of measuring price increases.
In this section you will be looking at measuring price changes using price indices. In order to do this you will need to understand the concept of a price ratio. Price ratios are another way of looking at price increases or decreases, related to the proportional and percentage increases and decreases you have seen before.
The mean, or the arithmetic mean as it is sometimes called, is found by adding together all the numbers in the batch and then dividing by the batch size. Thus, for the batch of heights,
6.5.1 Another ‘making a lawn’ solution
Example 18 Making a lawn
Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sowing grass seed. You have been asked to help them decide between the two.
Formulas are important because they describe general relationships, rather than specific numerical ones. For example, the tins of paint formula applies to every wall. To use such a formula you need to substitute specific values for the general terms, as the following examples show.
Example 8
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
lay out and, where appropriate, label simple mathematical arguments;
understand the precise mathematical meaning of certain common English words;
understand and use common mathematical symbols;
write clear, unambiguous mathematical solutions using appropriate notation;
identify and modify some sources of ambiguity or inappropriate use of notation in a mathematical solution;
1.7 Every picture tells a story: summing up
In summary, this section has looked at timeseries graphs, conversion graphs and mathematical graphs. Like all representations, graphs draw from a range of common conventions and styles to convey meaning. From a mathematical point of view, graphs give a visual impression of the relationship between two (or sometimes more) variables; but bear in mind that this impression is largely under the control of whoever draws the graph. When you are drawing graphs for yourself or others, you need to cho
1.5.2 Mathematical graphs: How do you read them?
The coordinates of a point are always given in the form
(value along the xaxis, value along the yaxis).
Two values separated by a comma and enclosed in round brackets form a coordinate pair.Author(s):
The term â€˜conversion graphâ€™ describes a graph used to convert a quantity measured in one system of units to the same quantity measured in another. For example, you can draw up a conversion graph to convert temperatures expressed in degrees Celsius to temperatures expressed in degrees Fahrenheit; to convert liquid volumes expressed in pints to the same volumes expressed in litres; to convert a sum of money expressed in one currency to the same amount expressed in a different currency.
<Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:
The content is taken from an activity written by Marion Hall for students taking courses in Health and Social Care, in particular those studying K101 An Introduction to Health and Social Care. The original activity is one of a set of skills activities made available to all HSC students via the HSC Resource Bank.
7 Subtracting decimals by lining them up
Subtracting whole numbers such as 52 from 375 is fairly straightforward. Subtracting decimal numbers such as 6.892 from 223.6 uses the same process but with one extra step â€“ you have to line the decimal points up first.
Rather than arranging your two numbers so that they line up on the righthand side, you need to line up the decimal points, regardless of how many numbers there are after the decimal point. In the example below, the top number has one number after the decimal point. It
10 Dividing by big numbers – long division
In the previous sections you saw how to divide a big number by a small number up to 10. Things get harder if you want to do a division where both the numbers are big. This kind of calculation is called long division, probably because you write the steps of the calculation out on paper in a long sequence.
The principle of doing long division is the same as when you divide by a number up to 10. The only difference is that, because the numbers involved in long division are usually too big