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7.2.1 E-shop

This is the most ubiquitous form of commerce on the World Wide Web. It involves a company presenting a catalogue of its wares to internet users and providing facilities whereby such customers can purchase these products. Almost invariably such a site will contain facilities for ordering and paying for products by means of credit cards. The sophistication of sites described by this business model range from just the simple presentation of a static catalogue to the presentation of an interactiv
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6.4 The Sydney Olympic Games system

IBM was responsible for the computer systems which were used in the 2000 Olympic Games. There were a number of components to the system, these included:

  • A website which was publicly accessible and which contained features on the Games, the competitors and the results.

  • A Games management system which administered the logistics of the Games, for example arranging transportation, accreditation and accommodation for athletes.


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6.3 The architecture

The architecture of the system is shown in Figure 4. It consists of a number of components. The most important of these is the web server. This communicates with browsers used by customers.

There are two other computers that are used in the system which are directly connected to the web server: a mail server which sends and receives mail from customers and a mailing list server which administers the mailing lists of customers and their interests. Both these servers communicate with the
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6.1 The architecture of a typical e-commerce system

Before finishing this unit it is worth looking at the architecture of a typical e-commerce system in order to see some of the technologies. This is followed by details of a real application which I shall use to discuss some of the issues involved in distributed system development. The description used is closely modelled on the Amazon site.


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5.6 Design

Designing a distributed system can also be a problem, for example the fact that computers in a distributed system are joined by communication media which can stretch over thousands of miles provides an added dimension to the design process in that response time can be a problem. Another, equally serious problem is that of reliability, for example the fact that a hardware malfunction can bring down a poorly-designed distributed system.

As an example of one design problem that a distribut
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5.5 Problems with transactions

A distributed transaction is a sequence of operations applied to a number of distributed databases which form a single functional step. For example, a transaction which moves an amount of money from a customer's account to an account owned by the same customer is an example of a transaction. It consists of two operations: the operation of debiting one account and the operation of crediting another account. There are a number of problems associated with distributed transactions. This section w
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5.1 Security and privacy

The internet is not a particularly secure place. There are two aspects to this: the first is that information is widely published throughout the internet which can be used for criminal and near-criminal activities. The second aspect is that since the internet is an open system, details of its underlying technologies are freely available to anybody. This means that the way data passes through the internet is in the public domain; the consequence of this is that, theoretically, anyone with the
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3.4 Newsgroups

A newsgroup is a collection of internet users who are interested in a particular topic. The topic may be a technical one, for example the LINUX operating system, or a recreational one such as fly fishing. Members of a newsgroup send messages associated with a particular issue such as the date of release of the next version of LINUX or the efficacy of using certain fiies on certain rivers. Each message – known as a posting – will contain the user's thoughts on the topic. Once
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1.6.3 Supporting users and user processes

Use of a database involves user processes (either application programs or database tools) which must be developed outside of the database development. In terms of the three-schema architecture we now need to address the development of the external schema. This will define the data accessible to each user process or group of user processes. In reality, most DBMSs, and SQL itself, do not have many facilities to support the explicit definition of the external schema. However, by using built-in q
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1.3 Summary

This section briefly discussed the public awareness of computers and how quickly this has developed from a situation where computers hardly impacted on most people to one where they are involved in virtually every facet of modern life. As an illustration, you examined the contents of your wallet to determine how much data about you (your persona) might be kept by a variety of organisations. This sets the scene for developing an understanding of how this affects you as an individual in modern
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Introduction

This course examines four of the ‘grand theories’ of child development: behaviourism, social learning, constructivism and social constructivism.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Education.


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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Working with young people in sport and exercise
This unit examines the special considerations of coaching or instructing young people in sport and exercise. The physiological differences between children and adults will be considered along with the practical implications of coaching young people. First published on Wed, 23 May 2012 as Author(s): Creator not set

Geometry
Geometry is concerned with the various aspects of size, shape and space. In this unit, you will explore the concepts of angles, shapes, symmetry, area and volume through interactive activities. First published on Tue, 04 Dec 2012 as Geometry. To find out more visit The Open Un
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7 Logarithms

The equation 23 = 8 means that 3 is the index of the power to which we raise the number 2 to produce 8.

A logarithm is an index, and in this example, 3 is the logarithm of 8 to the base 2. We write this as

Log2 8 = 3

These two equations are identical: 23 = 8 and log2 8 = 3

They express the same fact in the language of logarithms.


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4.1.1 Getting off to a good start

You may find it useful to plan the way you will start your exam. Having a routine can be calming when under pressure. This is from a student who recommends a checklist:

I have a mental checklist of what I need to do once I've turned over the paper. I do this because I used to rush in and answer the fir
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3.1.1 First find a place to revise

Other than the obvious suggestions of having a warm, well-lit and comfortable place to work, we also suggest that you think about choosing a revision place where you can spread out your materials and leave them as they are, without having to pack anything away. This means that you can pick up and put down your revision whenever you find time to revise. This will help you to make the most of your revision time.

On the other hand, you may find that you concentrate better away from the dis
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9.1 Reflection and the four main phases of learning how to learn

If your course encourages this approach to learning, or if you have read other material on learning how to learn, you may have come across the term 'reflection'. Maybe you have been encouraged to reflect on your learning or on your assignments. In this unit, we have deliberately not used the term until now. This is not because we think the term - or the process - is unimportant, but because it can seem vague and not particularly helpful to you as a learner. In fact, all the activities in this
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1.2 What do we mean by learning how to learn?

Activity 1

This activity will help you to explore what we mean by learning how to learn.

Think back to an example of study you have done in the past, or any fairly structured learning opportunity you remember. Focus on a particular ac
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4.4 Questioning what you read

Another way to keep your mind active while you read is to ask yourself questions about what you are reading.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • ask questions to make yourself think about what you read;

  • think about what the key concepts and issues are;

  • detach yourself from disagreements with the author's views.


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