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Introduction

This unit looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality might
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4.4 Marks and Spencer: a case study

The following case study examines a company coming to terms with market orientation.

Case study 1 M&S goes online to reverse crisis

Marks & Spencer is the latest UK retailer to turn to the web to revive its fortunes.

In the week that the company announced a halving in its pre-tax p
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3.3 Implications of market orientation

An organisation that develops and performs its production and marketing activities with the aim of satisfying the needs of its customers is market oriented. However, using market-led ideas in the non-profit sector requires a fundamental shift in organisational philosophy. Identifying those people who add value to the service means renaming some users ‘customers’. It also means that you have to establish what they want before you begin the planning processes and you have to concede
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce mate
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5 The characteristics of ‘good’ information

Have you ever seen a set of published accounts for a company? If you haven’t or, even if you have, take a look at some now. (They are often called the annual report.)

Internet activities are intended to show you the large range of information available at your fingertips. Some of it is useful, most of it is not. Accountants are increasingly having to deal with growing quantities of information and many are having to search for relevant information as part of their jobs. These I
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5.3 The selection interview

The aim of the selection interview is to determine whether the candidate is interested in the job and competent to do it. A selection interview also has the following functions:

  • to explain the work of the organisation, the job and any features such as induction and probation

  • to set expectations on both sides, including a realistic discussion of any potential difficulties (if appropriate)

  • to enable the candidate to assess w
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5.1 The interview as a selection method: pros and cons

Traditionally, the interview has been the main means of assessing the suitability of candidates for a job. Almost all organisations use the interview at some stage in their selection process. Similarly, most applicants expect to be interviewed. Interviews are useful for assessing such personal characteristics as practical intelligence and interpersonal and communication skills. The interview can be used for answering applicants’ questions, selling the organisation and negotiating terms and
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Activity 10: Critical reflections on Hofstede

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

You have spent most of this unit working with Hofstede's ideas. He is one of the pioneers of the study of national culture and its impact on organisations, and his work has been very influential.

My aim so far has been to help you understand Hofstede's cultural dimensions and to become familiar with how they can be used to analyse one of the main environments within which organisations operate. National culture is also one of the factors
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3.6.1 Saying thank you and acknowledging current contribution

Probably the single most important way of retaining people's support and goodwill is to say thank you promptly and to demonstrate that you have noted and valued whatever it is they have contributed. If you do not have the systems to guarantee that supporters are thanked appropriately, then you cannot seriously expect to move anyone anywhere – be it up a pyramid, into a kite or round a matrix.


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References

Connor, A. (1993) Monitoring and Evaluation Made Easy, HMSO.
Craig, S. and Jassim, H. (1995) People and Project Management for IT, McGraw-Hill.
Mae-Wan Ho (1999) ‘One bird – ten thousand treasures’, The Ecologist, October 1999, reprinted in Resurgence, No. 199, March/April 2000, p. 15.
Schlesinger,
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4.2.3 Restating the problem

If your analysis of the problem and its possible causes is thorough, it should enable you to rewrite the problem statement to include the causes. If you can clarify your objective by defining a desired end-state, you are more likely to produce a good solution.


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3.1 Introduction

Communication on project work is the glue that holds everything together!

(Young 1998)

The success of a project is principally determined by its stakeholders, including sponsors and project team, and you can only know how you are doing by keeping channels of communication open. In this section, we examine briefly some of the issues involved in communicating with all people involved with the
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2.2.1 Gathering information

Successful control of a project depends on the flow of information, so it is important to have systems in place to make sure that you get feedback on what is happening. If the project team is meeting regularly to review progress, monitoring becomes more dynamic and changes to the plan can be achieved by consensus. Involving the team not only helps to keep everyone on target – it also builds commitment.

Monitoring is the most important activity during the implementation phase of a proj
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1.2.1 Target dates

The overall plan will indicate the start dates for each group of activities, or each task. A useful way of focusing activities on achieving outcomes is to provide clear dates for completion of stages and of final outcomes. If there are a number of different types of team, these may start and finish tasks at different times. Where the work of one team depends on another having completed in time, there are important issues to consider. Although a good control system will provide information abo
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3.2 Inputs

Some inputs are used up in the process of creating goods or services; others play a part in the creation process but are not used up. To distinguish between these, input resources are usually classified as:

  • transformed resources – those that are transformed in some way by the operation to produce the goods or services that are its outputs

  • transforming resources – those that are used to perform the transformation process.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce mate
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2.7.1 Drawing a multiple-cause diagram

We can draw a multiple-cause diagram to explore and to communicate the complexity of a system, and to recognise that the effect of a particular system is normally the result of a number of different causes.

Examine the example shown in Figure 17 of the multiple c
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2.6 Mind mapping

The term mind mapping was devised by Tony Buzan for the representation of such things as ideas, notes and information, in radial tree diagrams — sometimes also called spider diagrams. These are now very widely used — try a web search on ‘Buzan’, ‘mind map’ or ‘concept map’.

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2.3 Influence diagrams

An influence diagram shows the influences, from within the organisation or from outside it, which bear on a person or unit.


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2.2 Input-output diagrams

An input-output diagram shows the inputs to a system or to an operation and the outputs from it.


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