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3.2 Magnetic field in a perfect conductor

When discussing the Meissner effect in Subsection 2.3, we argued qualitatively that a material that just had the property of zero resistance – a perfect conductor rather than a superconductor – would maintain a constant magnetic field in its interior, and would not expel any field that was present when the material became superconducting. We shall now show how that conclusion follows from an application of Maxwell's equations to a perfect conductor. We can then see what additional assumpt
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1.5 Key dissertation ingredients

A number of ingredients are essential for a satisfactory dissertation:

  • a thesis, i.e. one coherent overriding ‘story’ or argument

  • situation in existing knowledge, i.e. a critical review of prior research which motivates and justifies the research question

  • contribution of something new

  • appropriate voice and argument, i.e. the provision of clear and explicit evidence, substantiation, and chain of in
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4.3 Seismic energy

It is also possible to relate magnitude to the seismic energy released by an earthquake. An increase of one unit on the Richter scale represents an increase of about 40 times in the amount of seismic energy released.

Question 2

What i
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4.2 Earthquake magnitude

The magnitude of an earthquake is a measure of the amount of seismic energy released by it, so it is a quantitative scale. The scale of earthquake magnitude is called the Richter scale. Its development is described in Box 4, Charles Richter and the Richter earthquake magnitude scale. The Richter magnitude
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3 Where do earthquakes occur?

How deep in the Earth do earthquakes occur? Most earthquake foci are within a few tens of kilometres of the surface. Earthquakes less than 70 km deep are classified as shallow-focus. Earthquakes with foci 70–300 km deep are classified as intermediate-focus and those below 300 km are deep-focus (Figure 7). Shallow-focus
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1.3.9 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information on science and nature. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information

BBC Science and Nature Part of the BBC's website covering various topics on science and the nat
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7.1 Introduction

I now want to take forward the notion of a science curriculum for public understanding, identifying problems and opportunities. Our guide in what follows is the Beyond 2000  document, which emerged from a working group led by UK-based science educators, working collaboratively with science teachers, education researchers, professional scientists within universities, indust
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3.1.1 (A) Science and certainty

Pupils should appreciate why much scientific knowledge, particularly that taught in school science, is well established and beyond reasonable doubt, and why other scientific knowledge is more open to legitimate doubt. It should also be explained that current scientific knowledge is the best that we have but may be subject to change in the future, given new evidence or new interpretation of old evidence.


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8 Magistrates

Magistrates have been a part of the English legal system since the Justice of the Peace Act 1361. Their main role has always been in the criminal justice system. There are now over 30,000 magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace) hearing over one million criminal cases per yea
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3.2 Subordinate legislation

Subordinate legislation is legislation made by a person or body to whom Parliament has
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2.2 Civil and criminal law

One of the most common classifications and one that is used by many legal systems, is the distinction between civil and criminal law. As civil and criminal law have different purposes, different systems for dealing with them have developed.

Criminal law is about creating laws for the protection of society as a whole and providing punishment for those who break those laws. Criminal law sets out types of behaviour that are forbidden within society and if the behaviour occurs, then punishm
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1.1 The constitution

The UK has a common law legal system. It is very difficult to give a simple definition of the legal system in the UK, but you may find it helps to think of it as the system that covers how all civil and criminal laws are made, used and enforced.

A fundamental part of any legal system is its Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

In this unit you will have the opportunity to look at some of the constituent parts of the legal system in the UK. You will also consider how laws are made and who is responsible for enforcing them. Finally, you will have an opportunity to experiment with different ways of taking notes.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from the Open University course Starting with Law (Y166), which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally with The Open Un
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7 Review of unit learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

  • explain how Acts of Parliament originate:

     

    • party manifestos, national emergency or crisis, Royal Commissions, the Law Commission, Private Members' Bills

  • discuss the process by which rules become law and the role of Parliament in making legal rules:

     

    • first reading, second read
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6.1 Influences on the law-making process

In Part E I will discuss the influence of pressure groups in the rule-making process and assess the role that citizens can have in influencing the laws Parliament makes.

As you have seen already, most Acts of Parliament are the outcome of the policy decisions taken by Government and the actual policies pursued will depend upon the political goals of that Government. Most Acts result from Government Bills sponsored by the relevant Minister. Education legislation, for example, will be int
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4.9 The control of delegated legislation

You may have been surprised to read that through delegated legislation an enormous amount of law is made every year outside of the democratically elected parliamentary process and therefore this law is being made by non-elected people. There are, however, certain safeguards to ensure that delegated legislation is controlled by way of both parliamentary and judicial control.


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4.8 Professional regulations

Certain professional bodies, such as The Solicitors Regulation Authority, have delegated authority under enabling legislation to regulate the conduct of their members. The Solicitors Regulation Authority has power to control the conduct of practising solicitors under the Solicitors Act 1974. The General Medical Council regulates the conduct of its members under the Medical Act of 1858. It has four main functions:

  • to keep up-to-date registers of qualif
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4.2 The volume of delegated legislation

Delegated legislation is a very important source of legislation quite simply because of its volume. There are far more pieces of delegated legislation created each year than Acts of Parliament. For example, in 2005 there were only 24 general public Acts of Parliament passed whereas there were 3,699 Statutory Instruments made. You will learn about Statutory Instruments as one type of delegated legislation.


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3,3,7 Royal Assent

You have already seen references to Royal Assent in this unit. The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold a Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.

Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are kno
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