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5.2 EU primary legislation

In Part B we learned that the different stages in the development of the EU have been marked by the adoption of intergovernmental documents called ‘treaties’. These are the first source of EU law and contain the founding legal acts. They contain the basic provisions and the majority of EU economic law. The treaties also create the decision- and legal rule-making powers of the EU institutions.


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5.1 EU law

The main sources of EU law are:

  • EU primary legislation, represented by the treaties

  • EU secondary legislation, in the form of regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions

  • rulings on cases brought before the European Court of Justice.

EU law is created by the legislative powers with which the EU member states have invested the EU institutions. The law created by EU institutions is al
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4.7 Summary of Part C

Here you have learned about the rule-making mechanisms which characterise the EU and its main constitutive institutions: the European Council, the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice. These institutions complement each other in their legislative functions in order to deliver a body of Community law that applies uniformly and consistently in all the member states.


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4.5 The European Parliament

The European Parliament fulfils three main functions:

  • it shares the power to legislate

  • it exercises democratic supervision over all EC institutions

  • it shares authority over the EC budget.

The legislative and supervisory roles are based on the European Parliament's democratic legitimacy. Its members are directly elected every five years by the citizens of the EU member states.

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4.4 The Council of the European Union

The Council represents the interests of the individual member states and is seen as the legislative arm of the EU. It is composed of active representatives of the governments of the member states. Usually, these representatives are the departmental or junior ministers responsible for the matters under consideration at a specific Council meeting. This means that the Council itself, unlike the Commission, has no stable membership. Its membership varies depending upon the issues tabled for discu
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4.3 The European Commission

The European Commission is the political body that represents the EU as a whole. It is politically independent and can propose legislation, policies and programmes of action. It is also responsible for implementing the decisions of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union.

The European Commission is made up of a team of Commissioners (appointed by EU member states) and their support staff. Commissioners are chosen ‘on the grounds of their general competence’ and
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4.2 The European Council

The European Council brings together heads of state and government in order to decide on issues of common interest and overall EU policy and to review progress. In principle the European Council must meet at least twice a year but usually meets four times a year. The meetings are known as Summits. The European Council is the highest level policy-making body of the EU:

The European Council shall provide the Union with t
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4.1 Overview

The institutions of the EU work towards objectives related to the three pillars and the creation of a body of Community law that applies

  • uniformly

  • in all member states.

The institutions having legal rule-making powers include the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Commission. Finally, there is the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which has the power to settle
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3.6 Summary of Part B

In Part B you have learned that the EU arose from the need for post-war regeneration in the economic and social spheres.

The EU is a comparatively recent political and legal institution. It has developed and grown over the past six decades. This development and growth is marked by a series of intergovernmental treaties which bind the member states together in a close political and legal entity.


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The relationship between the EC and the EU

The words ‘European Economic Community’ (EEC), ‘European Community’ (EC) and ‘European Union’ (EU) have already been used in this unit, and many texts and journal and newspaper articles use them interchangeably. It is important that you are clear on their relationship and what they mean. This unit will always refer to the current position as the EU, but what is the relationship between the EC, the EEC and the EU?

As mentioned earlier, the Maastricht Treaty (1992) established
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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).
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Why create the EU?

All the member states of the EU have declared a belief in certain fundamental values and aims. Those fundamental values include the securing of lasting peace, unity, equality, freedom, security, solidarity, democracy and the rule of law (Article 6 [1] TEU). Remember that the creation and growth of the EU, like the European Convention on Human Rights, was achieved through the efforts of individuals and states that experienced the horrors and economic aftermath of the Second World War. Since it
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Introduction

This free course, Squares, roots and powers, reminds you about powers of numbers, such as squares and square roots. In particular, powers of 10 are used to express large and small numbers in a convenient form, known as scientific notation, which is used by scientific calculators.

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3.19 Practical examples of negative numbers

Negative numbers occur in financial matters, in temperature or height measurements and many other practical situations.

Example 26

  • (a) If the value of a painting increases by £20 a year and it is worth £200 today, how much will it be worth in a year's time
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3.18 Subtraction of negative numbers

Next consider subtraction of a negative number. In terms of Thomas’s piggy bank, subtracting a negative number is the same as taking away one of his IOUs. If his mother says ‘you have been a good boy today so I’ll take away that IOU for £3’ this is equivalent to him being given £3.

So, − (3) = 3. Does this correspond with the number line interpretation of subtracting a negative number?

Consider the evaluation of 8 − 3. Continue to think o
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3.7.2 Try some yourself

1 Without using your calculator, find the following:

  • (a) 100.001 + 10.1

  • (b) 100.001 − 10.1

Answer
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3.5 Several calculations and using brackets

Sometimes you may want to make several calculations in succession, and the order in which the calculations are performed may or may not be significant. For example, if you want to add 12 + 7 + 13, it makes no difference which of these two processes you adopt:

add the 12 and 7 first, to give 19, and then the 13, to give 32;

or

add the 7 and 13 first, to give 20, and then add this to 12 to give 32 again.

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2.3 Measuring mass

The basic SI unit for mass is the kilogram, symbol kg

The tonne (t) which is equivalent to 1000 kg and is a metric unit is often used alongside the SI units.

The animation below illustrates how to convert between the most commonly used units of mass, the metric tonnne (t); the kilogram (kg); the gram (g); the milligram (mg) and the microgram (μg).

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2.1.2 Try some yourself

Activity 15

Suggest appropriate units for each of the following:

  • (a) the age of the kitten when it is weaned;

  • (b) the distance between one train station and the
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1.7.1 Try some yourself

Activity 9

The diagram below shows an oatmeal cake marked into 12 equal portions. I want to give my sister a third of the cake. Where could I cut the cake, and what would be left over?

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