2.1 Systems thinking: the first step

The processes of analysis and synthesis in conventional thinking are based on the concept of an object. An object is something that can be clearly distinguished from its environment and can be characterised by its attributes. Attributes enable categorisation schemes that are the basis of our normal thinking. So when you look at a particular ecosystem, for example a pond, you find different animals and plants. And if you look at any ‘book of the pond’ you find each a
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2.1 Introduction

One aspect of micro and nano scale engineering that distinguishes it from many other forms of manufacturing is the way it involves building both the devices themselves and the very materials from which they are made, in one place and at more or less the same time. In general, MEMS are made from thin layers of new material produced, and then shaped in some way, on the surface of a silicon wafer. The devices contain several different materials, and have a three-dimensional structu
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3.4 Variation

In order to take us this far, I've had to write down a few parts and analyse them. This has clarified some points, but obscured others, the most basic of which can be stated bluntly: virtually every part in every Sundanese gamelan piece is subject to variation. Each player has, as a general rule, not a single correct part but rather a selection of equally correct options. In fact each player knows the basic structure (such as that discussed in Author(s): The Open University

2.1 An introduction to khyal singing

I now want to move on to explore the first of two case studies of non-Western music-traditions: North Indian art music, also known as Hindustani music. (There are two major art music traditions in South Asia; the other is known as South Indian or Carnatic.) In this section I will take you through a performance of music from this tradition and consider some of the questions posed by Author(s): The Open University

1.6 Summary

You may find it useful to go over the main points of the first section again.

  1. We in the West generally recognise two different concepts of musical creation, namely composition and improvisation. Composition is widely characterised as a relatively lengthy process involving the use of notation; improvisation involves the spontaneous generation of music without notation. The distinction can be useful when applied to our own art music tradition.


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1.4 Models and building blocks

When any musicians perform they refer to something pre-existent, something we might call a ‘model’ or ‘referent’. For musicians performing written music, the most important of these (although not necessarily the only one) is the score or part from which they perform. Depending on the particular genre and period in question, the performer may have freedom to choose or alter certain parameters (tempo, dynamics, phrasing, in some cases the notes themselves), but the score will indicate,
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Acknowledgements

Prepared for the Course Team by Simon Buckingham Shum

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Tables

Tables 3.1 and
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4.11 References

References can be useful, but they do have some limitations: no one would supply the name of a referee who was likely to give a bad reference. However, it is always a good idea to request them of the candidates who have been shortlisted (but, as we have already said, bear in mind that some candidates may not want their employers approached until they have actually been offered a job). It is helpful for referees if you enclose all the information sent out to the prospective candidate and point
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2.1 Culture as socialisation

The cultural perspective has become popular in business studies because it offers a way of explaining performance and understanding difference. It is only one way of analysing business, but it is an interesting one as it focuses particularly on the insider point of view, or on what it is ‘really’ like to work in an organisation. There have been many definitions of organisational culture. One definition that is often cited is:


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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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6 The stakeholders and their interests

Anyone in the organisation, or outside it, who has or might have a legitimate interest in the project and its outputs or outcomes, is a stakeholder. You need to identify these people and groups so that you can make sure you meet their expectations and manage the influence they may wish to exert over the progress of the project. Particularly important among the stakeholders will be:

  • the project sponsor – the person or group who set up the project, au
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5 Setting aims and objectives

‘If you don't know where you're going, you might end up somewhere else.’

(Casey Stengel, New York Yankees, quoted in Beckhard and Harris, 1987)

Aims are broad goals and can encompass an organisation's mission and values, whereas objectives define more precisely what a project is trying to achieve and how success will be recognised. The SMART principle is often applied to objectives. The
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1 1 Who are Europeans?

When I went to Loughborough for the first time I was pleasantly surprised as a social scientist to see that the town was twinned with Épinal, the French town where the founder of modern sociology, Émile Durkheim, was born. In fact, as you enter any major English town you are likely to see sooner or later a plaque indicating that the town is twinned with another European town. But what is the meaning of this practice?

After the Second World War, which pitched European state against Eur
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate the politics of racial violence.


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2.2.2 Positive integers: binary numbers

Just as a denary number system uses ten different digits (0, 1, 2, 3, … 9), a binary number system uses two (0, 1).

Once again the idea of positional notation is important. You have just seen that the weightings which apply to the digits in a denary number are the exponents of ten. With binary numbers, where only two digits are used, the weightings applied to the digits are exponents of two.

The rightmost bit is given the weighting of 2°, which is 1. The ne
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7.6 Researching information about RFID tags

Activity 32: exploratory

What is the smallest RFID tag currently available? Use the Web to see what you can come up with but don't spend longer than 10 minutes on this activity. (Hint: using ‘smallest RFID tag’ as the search term w
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5.5 Security

Because wireless signals travel in free space, they can be picked up by any device in range equipped with a suitable radio receiver. This has implications for the security of data on a wireless network, as it could be accessed by outside devices. Both WiFi and Bluetooth are equipped to address this problem by a combination of authentication and encryption. Authentication is a method of controlling access to the network so that only recognised devices are accepted. This can be done usin
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Introduction

In this unit you will explore social patterns in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and find out what’s important for people at various stages in their lives. Being able to talk about your own concerns and understanding those of others is an important aim when studying a foreign language and is the focus of this unit.

Materials include factual texts, news items and articles dealing with current issues and many recorded interviews with people in German-speaking countries. The activities
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Rights not set

5.2 Two halves of one pumping system

The heart pumps blood around the body. That might seem obvious, and you might think that there must be more to it than that, but there isn't. That is all that it does. However, this is a crucially important job.

Happy Holidays from the CCA Community
Enjoy the holidays and have a happy new year from the entire community at California College of the Arts! Here's to our ongoing commitment to making art that matters in the new year ahead! Want more information from CCA in the new year? Visit our news and lecture signup page: cca.edu/subscribe _______________ Video: Greg Bjork (Graphic Design 2014) and member of Sputnik Design Studio
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