4.1 The rate of evolution

I now want to move away from looking at the challenges facing all aquatic mammals, to examine very briefly what we know about the evolutionary history of the cetaceans. This group has travelled furthest from its terrestrial roots and made the fullest adaptation to life in the sea.

Since mammals evolved on land, it has long seemed reasonable to suggest that the origin of whales must have involved an evolutionary transition from the land to the water. But how can we explain the fact that
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3.2 Natural dives

The physiology of the diving response can be studied in the laboratory, but investigating the behaviour of a diving mammal in its natural environment can be more of a problem. However, modern physiological techniques have made it possible to record continuously physiological variables (such as heart rate) and information on depth and position during the spontaneous dives in the wild that are part of the animal's normal behaviour. Most such findings show that the majority of an animal's dives
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2.7 … and becoming more intelligent

Intelligence is a useful commodity: it can help an animal to make sense of its environment and cope with the demands of social behaviour (including courtship and competition). Hunters tend to be relatively intelligent, and otters, pinnipeds and cetaceans, for example, share a playful curiosity that is characteristic of animals that catch other animals for a living. Some especially extravagant claims have been made for the intelligence of the toothed whales, largely because these animals use c
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Introduction

The versatility of mammals is a central theme of the ‘Studying mammals’ series of units, but surely no environment has tested that versatility as much as the rivers and oceans of the world. Mammals are essentially a terrestrial group of animals, but three major groups have independently adopted an aquatic way of life. In moving to the water, aquatic mammals have had to survive, feed and reproduce using a set of biological characteristics that evolved in association with life on land. This
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"Good Chemistry" Music Video
This is a fun music video about chemical bonds.  This was made by a tenth grader in attempts to explain chemical bonds in his chemistry class. The music is produced by Jasper Harris. He uses young love in a humorous way to help explain the concepts.  (03:15) 
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Mathematical language
In our everyday lives we use we use language to develop ideas and to communicate them to other people. In this unit we examine ways in which language is adapted to express mathematical ideas. First published on Tue, 28 Jun 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Modelling heat transfer

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.4 MB).

1.3 Home screen

Some calculators, like the TI-84, provide you with several different screens for menus, drawing graphs, writing programs and so on. The most important screen, where calculations are carried out, is called the Home Screen. If you should find yourself trapped on another screen, the ‘panic’ buttons to return ‘home’ are usually one or other of the following:

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4.3.1 Ecological tax reforms

Communities such as Findhorn already behave as if natural resources need careful management: they work hard to reduce fossil fuel use. A central assumption of this way of thinking is that people need to root economies more locally (Figure 15). To see the same impulse spread through the mainstream economy would require that th
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1.4.3 It's all down to connections

For Iris Marion Young, the responsibility of those in North America and Europe towards distant others does indeed rest with their connections to injustices elsewhere, but it would be a mistake to stretch this line of reasoning too far. Although these connections, whether as a consumer, boardroom executive or shop manager, can establish a line of responsibility, as was claimed in Section 3.1, for Young this is only the starting point and not the end point of our involvement. We do not have to
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1.3.6 Activity 4

Activity 4

Nike drew up its code of conduct, as I have indicated, to meet its own concerns. Cast your eye down the checklist in Extract 2 and give yourself time to consider what issues might have been added if the code had been drawn u
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References

Allison, L. (1991) Ecology and Utility: The Philosophical Dilemmas of Planetary Management, Leicester, Leicester University Press.
BBC (2008) ‘The wrong way to a warmer world?’ [online], BBC News, 3 April, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/analysis/7328634.stm (accessed 15/4/10).
van den Born, R.J.G. (2008) ‘Rethinking nature: public visions in the Netherlan
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Acknowledgements

Author

This unit was prepared by Tom Power with guidance from Dr Arlene Hunter.

Tom Power is a lecturer in science education at The Open University. His research interests include teacher education in the global south (www.open.ac.uk/deep) and the CASE intervention. He has been a teacher and an advisory teacher in East Sussex and a specialist adviser to the TTA teacher research panel.

Dr Arlëne Hunter, Staff Tutor in Science in Ireland
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2 Setting priorities

Activity 3

4.7 Summary

Human activity has been responsible for some extinctions and othe deleterious changes to habitats. These changes have not always been the result of thoughtless or selfish behaviour; often intentions were worthy, but outcomes were not as predicted. The importance of genetic diversith is demonstrated here in relation to Dutch Elm disease. The need to retain genetic diversity in plants, used for food and medicine, is recognized in such initiatives as the Kew Milennium Seed Bank Appeal.


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2.1 Environment and technology

A central concern of environmental studies is the relationship between technology and our environment: how people use technology to transform materials into forms which can meet our needs and wants. In the process of doing this we inevitably change the environment which provides these materials but which also supports all life.

A few moments ago I went to my fridge and took some milk out to add to a cup of coffee. I used this common example of a modern domestic appliance without a secon
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Learning outcomes

When you have completed this unit you should have:

  • developed an awareness of different ways in which our use of technology can affect the environment

  • developed your own skills in reading and interpreting texts and diagrams containing some technical descriptions


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References

Beetham, D. (1999) Democracy and Human Rights, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Brown, C. (2001) ‘Human rights’ in Baylis, J. and Smith, S. (eds) The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Caney, S.(2001) ‘International distributive justice’ Political Studies, vol. 49, pp. 974–97.
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand how the world is in the process of ‘being made’, right down to the earth beneath our feet;

  • consider how islands are shaped by a dynamic relationship between territories and flows;

  • show how human life is entangled with non-human forces and processes in the making of today's globalised world.


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1.1Aim

The aim of this section is to practise the use of diagramming techniques as part of a fundamental shift in interpreting issues – from an assembly of static objects to a network of dynamic relationships.


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