1.3 The very early Universe

Time: <10−36 s

Temperature: >1028 K

Energy: >3 × 1015 GeV (i.e. >3 × 1024 eV)

At the very earliest times in the history of the Universe, we can only presume that a superunification of the four interactions was in operation. Unfortunately, no reliable theory of superunification is yet available, so nothing can be said about the contents or behaviour of the Universe in its earliest moments. Indeed, it
Author(s): The Open University

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5.10 Fluoridation

The addition of fluoride to water has caused much controversy and public debate. The problem seems to be that some see it as the addition of a poison, and others see it as the use of mass medication whether the individual wishes it or not.

Many waters do, however, have a natural fluoride content (Figure 33) and it has been suggested that the presence of fluoride in a concentration of 1.0 mg l−1 is beneficial in preventing dental decay. Above this concentration there is the
Author(s): The Open University

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How Pinball machines are made.
This three minute video shows how a pinball machine is made. It shows students how complicated such a machine is and teachers may use it to show how many inventions were needed to make it a come to life.
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SEEDS_Ep2_The_African_Womens_Sewing_Group
RMIT Social and Environmental Enterprise Developments (SEEDS) have helped African Women and an RMIT student develop a new business venture using recycled materials
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Refugees – what’s wrong with history?
Peter Gatrell gives a talk for the Refugee Studies Centre podcast series.
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Virtual Maths, Shapes, Space and Measure, Tan Table
Calculate the height of a building, Tan Table
Author(s): Leeds Metropolitan University

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Multiplying Two Small Matrices
In this video, an instructor explains the procedure for multiplying two small matrices.  He also provides an example to show when two matrices cannot be multiplied.  The problems are shown on a white board.  ( 3:56)
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3.1 Introduction

Active galaxies have occupied the attention of an increasing number of astronomers since the first example was identified in the 1940s. By one recent estimate, a fifth of all research astronomers are working on active galaxies, which indicates how important this field is. In this section you will learn about the observational characteristics of the four main classes of active galaxies: Seyfert galaxies, quasars, radio galaxies and blazars. This will set the scene for subsequent sections in wh
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the problems related to evidence for supporting claims on ‘ordinary’ people’s attitudes

  • demonstrate an awareness of popular responses to the South African War (1899-1902)

  • understand attitudes to imperialism held by Americans.


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Wetting on flexible substrates: a finite element formulation
Wetting is an important phenomenon in industrial applications such as coating industry as it could affect the coating uniformity and production rate. In modeling dynamic wetting on rigid solids, one of the challenges is to relieve the singularity in the viscous stress arising at the dynamic contact line due to double valued velocity. The singularity arising at the contact line is a mathematical singularity and not a physical singularity and hence, needs to be relieved. There are several models t
Author(s): Madasu, Srinath

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Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering
This course provides an overview of and introduction to the fundamentals of aeronautics, using the history of aviation as a story line. The course uses examples from the very beginning of aviation (the Montgolfier brothers' balloon flight in 1783 and the Wright brothers' heavier-than-air flight in 1903) and continues all the way through to the current Airbus A380 and future aircraft. This trajectory will start with a general introduction to aeronautics, to be followed by a closer look at aerody
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Letters, Numbers, Shapes, and Colors
This video is designed to teach letter, number, shape, and color recognition and pronunciation to preschool children without overstimulating them. Letters, numbers (1-20), shapes (circle, triangle, square, diamond, pentegon, hexegon, octogon, star, and arrow), and colors are shown a dark screen while the pronunciation is heard in a slow, calm voice.  Run time 08:00. 
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Our Planet is a Clock
A short animation presenting the rotating earth as a huge clock spinning in space. All efforts to measure and record time, start with our rotating planet. Learning about sundials is a good topic for any science curriculum. This video is one of a series explaining sundials.
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Synthesis and characterization of the properties of Ti3SiC2/SiC and Ti3SiC2/TiC composites
In 1996, the ternary compound titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2) was for the first timesynthesized as a single-phase, fully dense compound. Its characterization revealed aunique combination of properties. For its high fracture toughness, low hardness toelastic modulus ratio and excellent damage tolerance, it was dubbed a soft ceramic. Italso displayed good thermal shock and oxidation resistance. In this work, thereinforcement of this material with silicon carbide and titanium carbide particles w
Author(s): Ho-Duc, Linh H.

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4 Renewable energy sources

Fossil and nuclear fuels are often described as non-renewable because supplies are finite and will eventually run out. Renewable fuels are those energy sources that will not run out in the future.

Most renewable energy sources originate from the sun (solar energy), while tidal energy originates from the gravitational pull of the moon, and geothermal energy results from heat trapped below the surface of our planet.

Solar energy can be used directl
Author(s): The Open University

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3.5.1 Hair cells transform mechanical energy into neural signals

The tectorial membrane runs parallel to the basilar membrane, so when the basilar membrane vibrates up and down in response to motion at the stapes, so does the tectorial membrane. However, as shown in Figure 14, the displacement of the membranes causes them to pivot about different hinging points and this creates a shearing force betw
Author(s): The Open University

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Cuba Invaded! Castro Foes Open Offensive 1961/4/19
B-26 used by Cuban pilots; landed in Florida; in Cuba, rocket shells shown; Adlai Stevenson in UN denies any aggression; Guatemala training base; Castro in Cuba (partial newsreel)
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1.2.1 Planning your search

Your approach to searching will depend to a great extent on what kind of person you are. In an ideal world, when searching for information for a specific purpose, we would all find what exactly we were looking for at the first attempt, especially if we are in a hurry. However, it’s always a good idea to have some kind of plan when you are searching for information, if only to help you plan your time and make sure you find the information you need. If I was starting to search for material on
Author(s): The Open University

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4.1 Reading data from tables

Tables are used as a way of describing what you are talking about in a structured format. They tend to be used to present figures, either as a summary or as a starting point for discussion. Tables are also probably the most common way of presenting data in educational courses.

Tables have always been compiled by someone. In doing so, the compiler may have selected data and they will have chosen a particular format, either of which may influence the reader. You need to be aware of the co
Author(s): The Open University

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Why FIFA Should Be Learning From Brazil
FIFA’s anxiety over Brazil’s progress on World Cup preparations is a perfect example of developed countries’ expectations that need to be adjusted to deal with emerging markets.
Author(s): Felipe Monteiro, INSEAD Assistant Professor of Str

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