6.2 Shaping knowledge

It seems inevitable that any understandings we have will have been shaped and influenced by other (past and present) members of the same culture(s) we belong to. Most of these influences ‘just happen’: they arise out of our experiences as part of a culture whose members have had their experiences and shared them over many centuries. However, knowledge can also be deliberately influenced by powerful elements within a society: as we saw in Section 5.3, the church suppressed Galileo's r
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How Containerization Shaped the Modern World
Sometimes a single unlikely idea can have massive impact across the world. Sir Harold Evans, the author of They Made America, describes how frustration drove Malcom McLean, a small-town truck driver, to invent the shipping container. Containerization was born, and it transformed the modern global economy.  (04:47)
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Knee Replacement
This patient education program reviews the anatomy of the knee, symptoms, and treatments, including the benefits and risks of knee replacement surgery, for damaged knee joints. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute.
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Jar attributed to Dora Montoya's mother
"Olla -- orange and brown designs on tan slip. Orange designs outlined in black -- single upper framing line. Double lower framing line -- no line breaks. Concave base. Good [condition] clouding." -- From the Museum catalog,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Dora Montoya's Mother (?)

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Santa Ana olla
"Polychrome olla -- orange and black on tan slip. Single upper framing line -- orange designs outlined in black. Two lower framing lines -- no breaks in lines. Concave bottom. No signature on olla. Good [condition] one small chip on rim." -- From the Museum catalog.,Attributed to Dora Montoya,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Montoya, Dora

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Jar signed Robert Tenorio, Santo Domingo Pueblo, N.M.
Jar - orange and black on cream with designs - triangles - goat and corn stalk - orange bottom signed "Robert Tenorio Santo Domingo Pueblo" -- From the Museum catalog,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Tenorio, Robert

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San Ildefonso jar
"Polished and matte sienna on polished black bowl with feather and cloud designs. Signature on bottom "Popovi 570" white and green sticker on bottom with "601" and "CW-5" Condition: Excellent"-- From the Museum catalog.,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Da, Popovi

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San Ildefonso jar
"Jar - black highly polished. Design around top half of jar. Signature on bottom "Marie & Julian" Condition: Good - Few minor scratches on side"--From the Museum catalog.,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Martínez, María Montoya,Martinez, Julian, 1897

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Jar attributed to Sarafina Tafoya
"Jar - highly polished black water jar. Five bear paw designs on shoulder evenly spaced. No signature on pot Condition: Good - scratches on rim, 4 white spots on side could be paint"-- From the Museum catalog.,Gift by John A. Morgan, 2002
Author(s): Tafoya, Sarafina (?)

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Copyright Wichita State University. Wichita, Kansas. For more information contact the WSU Museum of Anthropology, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260.

1 What are scattering and tunnelling?
Scattering is fundamental to almost everything we know about the world, such as why the sky is blue. Tunnelling is entirely quantum-mechanical and gives rise to such phenomena as nuclear fusion in stars. Examples and applications of both these fascinating concepts are investigated in this unit.
Author(s): The Open University

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

There is an App for that: The Future of the Mobile App Store
How will the App store impact the future landscape of technology development and commerce? With the advent of the iPhone, Andriod, Blackberry and the move to mobile computing it is becoming clear the real power is within the mobile application marketplace. The Apple App store for example has become the dominant marketplace for mobile software innovation and is vying for more control with the newly arrived iPad platform.
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The End of Remembering
Once upon a time remembering was everything. Today, we have endless mountains of documents, the Internet and ever-present smart phones to store our memories. As our culture has transformed from one that was fundamentally based on internal memories to one that is fundamentally based on memories stored outside the brain, what are the implications for ourselves and for our society? What does it mean that we've lost our memory? Joshua Foer studied evolutionary biology at Yale University and is now a
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Next steps
The most ‘important and greatest puzzle’ we face as humans is ourselves (Boring, 1950, p. 56). Humans are a puzzle – one that is complex, subtle and multi-layered, and it gets even more complicated as we evolve over time and change in different contexts. When answering the question ‘What makes us who we are?’, psychologists put forward a range of explanations about why people feel, think and behave the way they do. Just when psychologists seem to understand one bit of ‘who we are’
Author(s): The Open University

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Glossary
The most ‘important and greatest puzzle’ we face as humans is ourselves (Boring, 1950, p. 56). Humans are a puzzle – one that is complex, subtle and multi-layered, and it gets even more complicated as we evolve over time and change in different contexts. When answering the question ‘What makes us who we are?’, psychologists put forward a range of explanations about why people feel, think and behave the way they do. Just when psychologists seem to understand one bit of ‘who we are’
Author(s): The Open University

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Lady Di against land mines
De media-aandacht voor beroemde personen kritisch belichten
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El Sistema: Social Support and Advocacy Through Musical Education
Even in the confines of a panel discussion,
Gustavo Dudamel radiates so much passion and ebullience that it requires little imagination to see him at the podium with a baton in hand. MIT’s 2010 McDermott Award in the Arts winner is, at the tender age of 29, one of the world’s top conductors and music disseminators.

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5 Conclusion

Knowledge technologies, as software systems, embody formal models of how the world works: for example, networks between people, what their roles are, how information should flow, rules about interdependences between variables, and how to index and categorise information. If well designed, such models relieve people of mundane activities, allowing them to focus on what they do best: communication, negotiation, creative problem solving: that is, the construction of new shared meaning. At their
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Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University

Activity 2

Click on 'View document' below to open and read the remainder of Audrey Linkman's article on 'Photography and art theory', then answer the questions.

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Automated Reasoning
Automated Reasoning - Nicholas Gibbins Keywords:automated reasoning , analytic tableaux , resolution
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References

Ariès, P. (1976) Western Attitudes Towards Death, Marion Boyars, London.
Cartwright, A., Hockey, L. and Anderson, J. (1973) Life before Death, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Dinnage, R. (1990) The Ruffian on the Stair: Reflections on Death, Viking, London.
Fenwick, P. and Fenwick, E. (1996) ‘The n
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Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence - see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/ - Original copyright The Open University