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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to answer the following questions:

  • What can very young babies do?

  • How can adults and older children involve babies fully in everyday life and help them feel valued?


Author(s): The Open University

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References

Foley, P. (2008) ‘Introduction’ in Collins, J. and Foley, P. (eds) Promoting Children's Wellbeing: Policy and Practice, Bristol, The Policy Press in association with The Open University.
Maynard, T. (2007) ‘Encounters with Forest School and Foucault: A Risky Business?’ Education 3–13, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 379–391.

Author(s): The Open University

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5.3 Teaching and learning

Vygotsky proposed that through contact with other, more able people children appropriate new ways of thinking and doing. Indeed Vygotsky saw learning as best supported when there is a degree of inequality in skills and understanding between two people. People of different abilities working together can create what Vygotsky termed a zone of proximal development (ZPD) – the difference between what a child can do unaided, and what the same child can do with the help of more able others.


Author(s): The Open University

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5.2 Thought and language

For Piaget the development of thought and language was dependent on underlying ‘intelligence’. Language is therefore simply a reflection of mental ability: intelligence precedes language and is independent of it.

Vygotsky (1986) however, proposed that language has two functions: inner speech, used for mental reasoning, and external speech, used for communication with other people. He suggested that these two functions arise separately. That is, before the age of about 2 years, child
Author(s): The Open University

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4.6 Evaluating constructivism

Piaget's theory was revolutionary in many respects. It recognised that children thought differently to adults. The view that learning is an individual and constructive process differed sharply from the prevailing climate of behaviourism when it was published. However, the experimental tasks that Piaget used to establish his theory have been subjected to criticism. Subsequent research, most notably by Donaldson (1978), has shown that under certain conditions young children are able to operate
Author(s): The Open University

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4.2 The origins of Piagetian theory

Piaget started his career as a biologist, interested in the processes by which organisms adapt to their environment during development. Born in Switzerland, his interest in child development began in 1920 when he worked in Alfred Binet's laboratory, helping to translate items for one of the first intelligence tests into French. Piaget became interested in the wrong answers the children gave. These ‘errors’ seemed to be systematic rather than random, suggesting some underlying consistencie
Author(s): The Open University

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4.2 Violence within communities

Click on 'View document to access Reading B

Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

On completion of this topic, you should be able to:

  • Discuss the ways in which children are the victims of violence and the multiple effects that violence has on children, encompassing not only physical pain and injury but also psychological damage.

  • Examine the various roles that children play in relation to violence, as victims, perpetrators, witnesses, colluders and peacemakers.

  • Analyse the relationship between children as victims of violence and a
    Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.3 Feeling safe and secure in school

As we noted above, children place importance on feeling safe and secure. This desire could be used as an argument both in favour of and against inclusive education. It is a fundamental characteristic of most conceptualizations of inclusive schools that they are places where all children can feel secure about being themselves. Opponents of inclusion might argue, though, that a fundamental problem in mixing children together is that they may be exposed to situations where they feel and experien
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.1 A. Worker as protector

Young people are not yet full people. They are essentially rather weak and helpless and need a lot of nurturing and caring for. They also need protecting from the traps and many potential evils of society. Society is increasingly complex and they need guidance to find their way around. It's the adults’ job to provide this nurturing and protection and to ‘prepare them for life’ until they in turn become adults and will play their own part in moulding the next generation.


Author(s): The Open University

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